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King’s Conceptual System

Contributor: Jacqueline Fawcett
August 23, 2018

Author – Imogene King, RN, EdD, FAAN

Year First Published – 1971

© 2018 Jacqueline Fawcett

Major Concepts

PERSONAL SYSTEM

INTERPERSONAL SYSTEM

SOCIAL SYSTEM

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
HEALTH
ILLNESS
NURSING PROCESS

Typology

Conceptual model of nursing

Brief Description

King’s Conceptual System, which also has been called the Open Systems Model, the Interacting Systems Framework, the General Systems Framework, “focuses on the continuing ability of individuals to meet their basic needs so that they may function in their socially defined roles, as well as on individuals’ interactions within three open, dynamic, interacting systems.” (Fawcett, J., & DeSanto-Madeya, S. (2013). Contemporay nursing knowledge: Analysis and evaluation of nursing models and theories (3rd ed., p. 81). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.)

 

Primary Sources

King, I.M. (1964). Nursing theory—Problems and prospect. Nursing Science, 2, 394–403.

King, I.M. (1968). A conceptual frame of reference for nursing. Nursing Research, 17, 27–31.

King, I.M. (1971). Toward a theory for nursing: General concepts of human behavior. New York, NY: Wiley.

King, I.M. (1981). A theory for nursing: Systems, concepts, process. New York: Wiley. [Reissued 1990. Albany, NY: Delmar.]

King, I.M. (1983). King’s theory of nursing. In I.W. Clements & F.B. Roberts (Eds.), Family health: A theoretical approach to nursing care (pp. 177– 188). New York, NY: Wiley.

King, I.M. (1986). King’s theory of goal attainment. In P. Winstead Fry (Ed.), Case studies in nursing theory (pp. 197–213). New York: National League for Nursing.

King, I.M. (1987). King’s theory of goal attainment. In R.R. Parse (Ed.), Nursing science. Major paradigms, theories, and critiques (pp. 107–113). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

King, I.M. (1988). Imogene M. King. In T.M. Schorr & A. Zimmerman (Eds.), Making choices. Taking chances. Nurse leaders tell their stories (pp. 146–153). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

King, I.M. (1989). King’s general systems framework and theory. In J.P. Riehl-Sisca (Ed.), Conceptual models for nursing practice (3rd ed., pp. 149–158). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.

King, I.M. (1990a). Health as the goal for nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3, 123–128.

King, I.M. (1990b). King’s conceptual framework and theory of goal attainment. In M.E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 73–84). New York, NY: National League for Nursing.

King, I.M. (1992). King’s theory of goal attainment. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 19–26.

King, I.M. (1995a). A systems framework for nursing. In M.A. Frey & C.L. Sieloff (Eds.), Advancing King’s systems framework and theory of nursing (pp. 14–22). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

King, I.M. (1995b). The theory of goal attainment. In M.A. Frey & C.L. Sieloff (Eds.), Advancing King’s systems framework and theory of nursing (pp. 23–32). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

King, I.M. (1996). The theory of goal attainment in research and practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 9, 61–66.

King, I.M. (1997a). Reflections on the past and a vision for the future. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10, 15–17.

King, I.M. (1997b). King’s theory of goal attainment in practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10, 180–185.

King, I.M. (1999). A theory of goal attainment: Philosophical and ethical implications. Nursing Science Quarterly, 12, 292-296.

King, I.M. (2001). Imogene M. King: Theory of goal attainment. In M.E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories and nursing practice (pp. 275-286). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.

Theories Derived from King’s Conceptual System

Theory of Goal Attainment

King, I.M. (1981). A theory for nursing: Systems, concepts, process. New York, NY: Wiley. [Reissued 1990. Albany, NY: Delmar.]
King, I.M. (1995). The theory of goal attainment. In M.A. Frey & C.L. Sieloff (Eds.), Advancing King’s systems framework and theory of nursing (pp. 23–32). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
King, I.M. (1997). King’s theory of goal attainment in practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10, 180–185.
Kameoka, T., Funashima, N., & Sugimori, M. (2007). If goals are attained, satisfaction will occur in nurse-patient interaction: An empirical test. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 261-272). New York: Springer.

Theory of Nursing Administration

King, I.M. (1989). Theories and hypotheses for nursing administration. In B. Henry, M. DiVincenti, C. Arndt, & A. Marriner (Eds.), Dimensions of nursing administration. Theory, research, education, and practice (pp. 35–45). Boston: Blackwell Scientific.

Theory of Nursing Empathy by UT Knoxville Empathy Research Team/Theory of Personal System Empathy/Theory of Interpersonal System Empathy/Theory of Social System Empathy

Alligood, M.R. (2007). Rethinking empathy in nursing education: Shifting to a developmental view. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 287-296). New York, NY: Springer.
Alligood, M.R. (2010). Philosophies, models, and theories: Critical thinking structures. In M.R. Alligood, Nursing theory: Utilization and application (4th ed., pp. 47-71). St. Louis, MO Mosby Elsevier.
Alligood, M.R., & May, B.A. (2000). A nursing theory of personal system empathy: Interpreting a conceptualization of empathy in King’s interacting systems. Nursing Science Quarterly, 113, 243–247.

Theory of Basic Empathy, Self-Awareness, and Learning Styles/ Theory of Empathy, Self-Awareness, and Learning Style

May, B.A. (2000). Relationships among basic empathy, self-awareness, and learning styles of baccalaureate pre-nursing students within King’s person system. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61, 29991B.
May, B.A. (2007). Relationships among basic empathy, self-awareness, and learning styles of baccalaureate prenursing students within King’s personal system. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 164-177). New York: Springer.
Alligood, M.R. (2010). Philosophies, models, and theories: Critical thinking structures. In M.R. Alligood, Nursing theory: Utilization and application (4th ed., pp. 47-71). St. Louis, MO Mosby Elsevier.

Theory of Intrapersonal Perceptual Awareness/Theory of Perceptual Awareness

Brooks, E.M., & Thomas, S. (1997). The perception and judgment of senior baccalaureate student nurses in clinical decision making. Advances in Nursing Science, 19(3), 50–69.
Alligood, M.R. (2010). Philosophies, models, and theories: Critical thinking structures. In M.R. Alligood, Nursing theory: Utilization and application (4th ed., pp. 47-71). St. Louis, MO Mosby Elsevier.

Theory of Family Health/Family Health Theory

Doornbos, M.M. (1995). Using King’s systems framework to explore family health in the families of the young chronically mentally ill. In M.A. Frey & C.L. Sieloff (Eds.), Advancing King’s systems framework and theory of nursing (pp. 192–205). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Doornbos, M.M. (2000). King’s systems framework and family health: The derivation and testing of a theory. Journal of Theory Construction and Testing, 4, 20–26.
Doornbos, M.M. (2002). Predicting family health in families of young adults with severe metal illness. Journal of Family Nursing, 8, 241-263.
Doornbos, M.M. (2007). King’s conceptual system and family health theory in the families of adults with persistent mental illnesses—An evolving conceptualization. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 31-49). New York, NY: Springer.

Theory of Asynchronous Development

du Mont, P.M. (1998). The effects of early menarche on health risk behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60, 3200B.
du Mont, P. (2007). A theory of asynchronous development: A midlevel theory derived from a synthesis of King and Peplau. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 50-74). New York, NY: Springer.

Theory of Decision Making/Theory of Decision-Making in Women Eligible for a Cancer Clinical Trail

Ehrenberger, H.E. (2000). Testing a theory of decision making derived from King’s systems framework in women eligible for a cancer clinical trail. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60, 3201B.
Ehrenberger, H.E., Alligood, M.R., Thomas, S.P., Wallace, D.C., & Licavoli, C.M. (2002). Testing a theory of decision-making derived from King’s systems framework in women eligible for a cancer clinical trial. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15, 156–163.
Ehrenberger, H.E., Alligood, M.R., Thomas, S.P., Wallace, D.C., & Licavoli, C.M. (2007). Testing a theory of decision making derived from King’s systems framework in women eligible for a cancer clinical trial. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 75-91). New York, NY: Springer.
Alligood, M.R. (2010). Philosophies, models, and theories: Critical thinking structures. In M.R. Alligood, Nursing theory: Utilization and application (4th ed., pp. 47-71). St. Louis, MO Mosby Elsevier.

Theory of Quality of Life

Fairfax, J. (2007). Development of a middle range theory of quality of life of stroke survivors derived from King’s conceptual system. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 124-137). New York: Springer.

Theory of Families, Children, and Chronic Illness/Theory of Social Support and Health

Frey, M.A. (1989). Social support and health: A theoretical formulation derived from King’s conceptual framework. Nursing Science Quarterly, 2, 138–148.
Frey, M.A. (1995). Toward a theory of families, children, and chronic illness. In M.A.
Frey & C.L. Sieloff (Eds.), Advancing King’s systems framework and theory of nursing (pp. 109–125). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Alligood, M.R. (2010). Philosophies, models, and theories: Critical thinking structures. In M.R. Alligood, Nursing theory: Utilization and application (4th ed., pp. 47-71). St. Louis, MO Mosby Elsevier.

Theory of Social Support and Health

Fries, J.E. (1998). Health and social support of older adults. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59, 6262B.
Fries Reed, J.E. (2007). Social support and health of older adults. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 92-104). New York: Springer.

Theory of Integration

Hernandez, C.A. (2007). The theory of integration: Congruency with King’s conceptual system. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 105-123). New York, NY: Springer.

Theory of Patient Satisfaction with Nursing Care

Killeen, M.B. (2007). Development and initial testing of a theory of patient satisfaction with nursing care. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 138-163). New York, NY: Springer.

Theory of Interaction Enhancement

Meighan, M.M. (2000). Testing a nursing intervention to enhance paternal-infant interaction and promote paternal role assumption. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60, 3204B.

Theory of Transaction Process

Messmer, P.R. (2006). Professional model of care: Using King’s theory of goal attainment. . Nursing Science Quarterly, 19, 227-229.

Theory of Health Perception

Sharts-Hopko, N.C. (2007). A theory of health perception: Understanding the menopause transition. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 178-195). New York: Springer.

Theory of Departmental Power/Theory of Group Power within Organizations

Sieloff, C.L. (1995). Development of a theory of departmental power. In M.A. Frey & C.L. Sieloff (Eds.), Advancing King’s systems framework and theory of nursing (pp. 46–65). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sieloff, C.L. (2004). Leadership behaviors that foster nursing group power. Journal of Nursing Management, 12, 246-251.
Sieloff, C.L. (2007). The theory of group power within organizations—Evolving conceptualization within King’s conceptual system. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 196-214). New York: Springer.
Frey, M.A., Sieloff, C.L., & Norris, D.M. (2002). King’s conceptual system and theory of goal attainment: Past, present, and future. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15, 107–112.

Theory of Group Empowerment within Educational Organizations

Friend, M.L. (2015). Group empowerment in nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 54, 689-695
Friend, M. L., Sieloff, C. L., Murphy, S., & Leeper, J. (2016). Content and factor validation of the Sieloff-King-Friend Assessment of Group Empowerment within Educational Organizations. Nurse Education Today, 42, 78-85.
Theory of Group Outcome Attainment within Organizations
Sieloff, C.L. (2010). Improving the work environment through the use of research instruments: An example. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 34(1), 56-60

Theory of Family Health

Wicks, M.N. (1997). A test of the Wicks family health model in families coping with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Family Nursing, 3, 189–212.
Wicks, M.N., Rice, M.C., & Talley, C.H. (2007). Further exploration of family health within the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 215-236). New York: Springer.

Theory of Organizational Health

Winker, C.K. (1995). A systems view of health. In M.A. Frey & C.L. Sieloff (Eds.), Advancing King’s systems framework and theory of nursing (pp. 35– 45). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Theory of Social and Interpersonal Influences on Health

Zurakowski, T.L. (2007). Theory of social and interpersonal influences on health. In C.L. Sieloff & M.A. Frey (Eds.), Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system (pp. 237-257). New York, NY: Springer.

Author

Imogene King (1923 – 2007)

Dr. King received a diploma in nursing from St. John’s Hospital School of Nursing in St. Louis, MO (1945); a Bachelor of Science n Nursing Education (1948) and a Master of Science in Nursing (1957) from St. Louis University; and an EdD from Teachers College Columbia University (1961),. Dr. King worked as a staff nurse and held faculty positions and administrative positions at St. John’s Hospital School of Nursing and Ohio State University, and faculty positions at Loyola University Chicago and the University of South Florida. She also served in the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare as Assistant Chief of the Division of Nursing Research Grants Branch. (Sieloff, C. L., & Messmer, P. R. (2010). Imogene M. King. In M. R. Alligood & A. M. Tomey, Nursing theorists and their work (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.)

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