Situation-Specific Theory for Health Management in Heart Failure

Authors – Gisele Saraiva Bispo Hirano, PhD, RN; Alba Lucia Bottura Leite de Barros, PhD, RN; Viviane Martins Silva, PhD, RN

First published – 2023
Major Concepts
  • Health Management
  • Conditioning Factors
  • Nursing Intervention
Typology – Situation-specific Theory
Brief Description

This situation-specific theory was developed by linking concepts from Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory and standardized nursing languages with the purpose of explaining and describing the health management of outpatients with heart failure. This theory suggests that the health management of these patients is influenced by basic conditioning factors, which may affect individuals’ health management capability and may interfere with the ability to present health management behaviors. Knowing the ability of patients to manage their health will allow nurses to plan their interventions, which will reflect directly on a patient’s quality of life, and reduce the chances of hospitalization and health costs.

Primary Source

Hirano GSB, Barros ALBL de, Silva VM da. Situation-Specific Theory for Health Management in Heart Failure. Nursing Science Quarterly. 2023;36(3):264-272. doi:10.1177/08943184231169757


We thank Jacqueline Fawcett for her contribution in guiding the structure of the theory and in revising the text


Gisele Saraiva Bispo Hirano – Doctoral of Science from the Federal University of São Paulo. Dr. Hirano is currently a professor of the disciplines of Nursing Practice and Adult Health in the undergraduate course in Nursing at Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU). She has experience in Nursing, with emphasis on Cardiology, working mainly with the following subjects: Cardiology, Nursing Diagnoses and Nursing Theories

Alba Lucia Bottura Leite de Barros – PhD at physiopharmacology from Federal University of São Paulo (1989). Dr. Barros has experience in Nursing, focusing on Nursing, acting on the following subjects: nursing diagnoses, cardiology, standardized nursing terminology

Viviane Martins Silva – Graduated in Nursing from the State University of Ceará (2001), Master’s in Nursing from the Federal University of Ceará (2005) and Ph.D. in Nursing from the Federal University of Ceará (2007). Dr. Silva is currently Associate Professor III at the Federal University of Ceará. Associate member of the Brazilian Nursing Association Ceará Section, the Brazilian Society of Pediatric Nurses, NANDA International and the Nursing Process Research Network (RePPE).