Neuman’s Systems Model

Contributor: Jacqueline Fawcett
August 30, 2018

Author – Betty Neuman, RN; BSN; MSN; PhD: FAAN

Year First Published – 1972

© 2018 Jacqueline Fawcett

Major Concepts

CLIENT/CLIENT SYSTEM

Individual
Family
Community
Social Issue

INTERACTING VARIABLES

Physiological Variable
Psychological Variable
Sociocultural Variable
Developmental Variable
Spiritual Variable

BASIC STRUCTURE
FLEXIBLE LINE OF DEFENSE
NORMAL LINE OF DEFENSE
LINES OF RESISTANCE
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
CREATED ENVIRONMENT
STRESSORS

Intrapersonal Stressors
Interpersonal Stressors
Extrapersonal Stressors

HEALTH/WELLNESS/OPTIMAL CLIENT SYSTEM STABILITY
VARIANCES FROM WELLNESS
ILLNESS
RECONSTITUTION
PREVENTION AS INTERVENTION

Primary Prevention as Intervention
Secondary Prevention as Intervention
Tertiary Prevention as Intervention

PRACTICE METHODOLOGY: NEUMAN SYSTEMS MODEL NURSING PROCESS FORMAT

Nursing Diagnosis
Nursing Goals
Nursing Outcomes

Typology

A conceptual model of nursing

Brief Description

“Neuman’s work focuses on the wellness of the client system in relation to environmental stressors and reactions to stressors. . . . [The] goal of nursing [is] to facilitate optimal wellness for the client through retention, attainment, or maintenance of client system stability.” (Fawcett, J., & DeSanto-Madeya, S. (2013). Contemporary nursing knowledge: Analysis and evaluation of nursing models and theories (3rd ed., p. 139). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.)

Primary Sources

Hinton Walker, P., & Neuman, B. (Eds.). (1996). Blueprint for use of nursing models. New York, NY: NLN Press.
Huch, M.H. (1991). Perspectives on health. Nursing Science Quarterly, 4, 33–40.
Neuman, B. (1974). The Betty Neuman Health Care Systems Model: A total person approach to patient problems. In J.P. Riehl & C. Roy (Eds.), Conceptual models for nursing practice (pp. 99–114). New York, NY: Appleton-Century Crofts.
Neuman, B. (1980). The Betty Neuman Health Care Systems Model: A total person approach to patient problems. In J.P. Riehl & C. Roy (Eds.), Conceptual models for nursing practice (2nd ed., pp. 119–134). New York, NY: Appleton Century Crofts.
Neuman, B. (1982). The Neuman systems model. Application to nursing education and practice. Norwalk, CT: Appleton Century Crofts.
Neuman, B. (1983). Family intervention using the Betty Neuman health care systems model. In I.W. Clements & F.B. Roberts (Eds.), Family health: A theoretical approach to nursing care (pp. 239–254). New York, NY: Wiley.
Neuman B. (1985). The Neuman systems model. Senior Nurse, 5(3), 20–23.
Neuman, B. (1989). The Neuman systems model (2nd ed.). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.
Neuman, B. (1990). The Neuman systems model: A theory for practice. In M.E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 241–261). New York, NY: National League for Nursing.
Neuman, B. (1990). Health as a continuum based on the Neuman systems model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3, 129–135.
Neuman, B. (1995). The Neuman systems model (3rd ed.). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.
Neuman, B. (1996). The Neuman systems model in research and practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 9, 67–70.
Neuman, B., Chadwick, P.L., Beynon, C.E., Craig, D.M., Fawcett, J., Chang, N.J., Freese, B.T., & Hinton Walker, P. (1997). The Neuman systems model: Reflections and projections. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10, 18–21.
Neuman, B., & Fawcett, J. (Eds.). (2002). The Neuman systems model (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Neuman, B., & Fawcett, J. (Eds.). (2011). The Neuman systems model (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Neuman, B., & Reed, K.S. (2007). A Neuman systems model perspective on nursing in 2050. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20, 111-113.
Neuman, B., & Young, R.J. (1972). A model for teaching total person approach to patient problems. Nursing Research, 21, 264–269.

Theories Derived from Neuman’s Systems Model

Theory of Optimal Client System Stability
Neuman, B. (2011). The Neuman systems model. In B. Neuman & J. Fawcett (Eds.), The Neuman systems model (5th ed., pp. 3–33). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Theory of Prevention as Intervention
Neuman, B. (2011). The Neuman systems model. In B. Neuman & J. Fawcett (Eds.), The Neuman systems model (5th ed., pp. 3–33). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Theory of Optimal Student System Stability
Lamb, K.A. (1999). Baccalaureate nursing students’ perception of empathy and stress in their interactions with clinical instructors: Testing a theory of optimal student system stability according to the Neuman systems model. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60, 1028B.

Theory of Well-Being
Casalenuovo, G.A. (2002). Fatigue in diabetes mellitus: Testing a middle-range theory of well-being derived from the Neuman’s theory of optimal client system stability and the Neuman systems model. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63, 2301B.

Theory of Infant Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke
Stepans, M.B.F., & Knight, J.R. (2002). Application of Neuman’s framework: Infant exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15, 327–334.

Theory of Maternal-Student Role Stress (Gigliotti, 2007, 2011)
Gigliotti, E. (2001). Empirical tests of the Neuman systems model: Relational statement analysis. Nursing Science Quarterly, 14, 149–157.

Gigliotti, E. (2011). Deriving middle-range theories from the Neuman systems model. . In B. Neuman & J. Fawcett (Eds.), The Neuman systems model (5th ed., pp. 283-298). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Theory of Adolescent Vulnerability to Risk Behaviors
Cazzell, M. (2008). Linking theory, evidence, and practice in assessment of adolescent inhalant use. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 19, 17-25.

Author

Betty Neuman (1924 – )

Professional History
PhD, Pacific Western University; Los Angeles, CA; in clinical psychology (1985)
UCLA faculty; developed first community mental health program for graduate students in the LA area. (1967 – 1973)
MSN, UCLA (1966)
BSN, UCLA; dual majors: mental heath and public health (1957)
RN Diploma, Cadet Nurse Program; Akron, Ohio (1947)

Honorary Doctorates and American Academy of Nursing
Honorary Doctorate of Science, Grand Valley State University, Michigan (1998)
Honorary Doctorate of Letters, Neumann College, Aston, PA (1992)
Honorary Member of the Fellowship of the American Academy of Nursing (1993)

Current Positions
Independent Curriculum Consultant in Nursing; Private Practice Health Consultant; Author; Lecturer; Instructor; Individual & Family Counselor
Founder and Member of the Neuman Systems Model Trustee Group, Inc. (1988)
For the past 40 years, Dr. Betty Neuman has worked extensively advancing the Neuman systems model through her work as an educator, author, health consultant, presenter, and through writing and consultations with nursing educators, practitioners, administrators, and researchers at local, national, and international forums.
(From https://www.neumansystemsmodel.org/new-page/)