A dozen (and one) 2019 nursology events!

When we first started building Nursology.net, one of the “sections” that we set out in the plan was a “future events” section.  We all knew of a handful of conferences related to the development of nursing knowledge, but lo and behold – we have now discovered a grand total of twelve!  And there could be more!  If you have not yet browsed the impressive list of conferences, hover over “Future Events” on the main menu, and you can scroll down for an overview that includes locations and dates!

The first event of the year is the 50 Year Perspective conference at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, OH, March 21-22, 2019.  This conference will commemorate the very first nursing theory conferences held in 1968 and 1969 that resulted in a number of landmark articles published in Nursing Research – articles that remain a mainstay that launched a widespread effort to develop nursing’s disciplinary knowledge. The focus of the conference will be the disciplinary perspective of nursing, and the structure of nursing knowledge.  Articles in the current issue of Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 42:1 provide a focus that will be a foundation for discussion at the conference – so whether you can attend or not, check out those articles to learn more!

From March on, we have roughly one event every month until the end of the year – occasionally more than one!   Most of these are focused on one particular theoretic or philosophic focus, but are still of general interest for many nursologists!  Many are accepting abstracts, so watch our sidebar “Due Dates” feature to keep up with these opportunities.

The November KING conference is a collaborative conference for everyone, featuring participation from a number of groups focused on the development of nursing knowledge – including:

  • International Association of Human Caring
  • International Caritas Consortium
  • International Consortium of Parse Scholars
  • Neuman Systems Model Trustees Group, Inc.
  • Orem International Society
  • Roy Adaptation Association
  • Society for the Advancement of Modeling and Role Modeling
  • Society of Rogerian Scholars
  • Transcultural Nursing Society
  • Watson Caring Science Institute

Abstracts for this Collaborative conference are not due until May 1st — so consider this great opportunity now!

The (and one) conference is the annual Nursing Journal Editors (INANE) conference in July 30 – August 2 in Reno, Nevada – an event that welcomes all of those interested in and participating in the process of editing and producing nursing literature.  The conference this year features a day-long workshop for new editors and those who want to pursue a journal editing career!

The opportunities abound!  If you cannot participate in person, watch Nursology.net for reports and resources from each of these events!  If you know of an event that we have not yet listed, please let us know!  After each event concludes, we will move the conference “page” to our “history” section and add reports, papers, photos and videos that the conference planners provide for archiving. By keeping an eye on these important resources, you can benefit from being informed of the important outcomes and advances that will be sure to enrich our discipline!

 

Opportunities for Advancing Nursing Knowledge: A Personal Journey of Appreciation

24 years ago while completing the first baccalaureate nursing degree program offered in Tanzania, East Africa at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS); I sat in a nursing theory class trying to grasp concepts and principles that shape nursing as a professional discipline (i.e. the grand and middle range nursing theories and models). Surprisingly, most of the concepts I learned mirror concepts I have since encountered in my academic career as a graduate student and nurse scholar. For instance, self-care concepts in chronic disease management mirror concepts in Orem’s self-care theory; concepts in interprofessional models mirror concepts in nursing interpersonal and interactional theories (e.g. Imogene King’s theory and Peplau’s theory); Systems thinking concepts mirror concepts in Roy’s conceptual model  and Betty Neumann’s conceptual model; concepts in psychotherapeutic approaches mirror concepts in the nursing humanistic theories (e.g. relational and caring concepts) and concepts in the acculturation theories (e.g. Gordon’s theory, John Berry’s theory) mirror those in Leininger’s cultural care theory. These are just a few examples on how rich nursing theoretical underpinnings play a key role guiding health care actions and outcomes in addition to the medical disease-centered perspective.  In this case, I think we need to strategically revisit the existing models, refine and adapt them to our changing health care environments as well as develop new approaches and educational models that have an impact on health outcomes of interest.

This critical reflective query originates from a quote I read in the 2010 Institute of Medicine Future of Nursing: Focus on Nursing Education Research Brief stating that, “New approaches and educational models must be developed to respond to burgeoning information in the field. For example, fundamental concepts that can be applied across all settings and in different situations need to be taught, rather than requiring rote memorization” (p2). This statement made me think further: Have we adequately synthesized the existing key concepts and principles? Is it time to re-visit the nursing metaparadigm concepts? What new concepts do we need to develop and how can we develop them? Which concepts and principles of the disciplines should we teach in undergraduate vs graduate nursing programs to avoid rote memorization? Are we at risk of re-inventing wheels of nursing knowledge? Have we been instrumental in advancing implementation science to promote “empirical and practical generalizability” of nursing theories and models? 

A memorable photo of the burn patient I cared for in the surgical ward.

Let me flashback on my personal educational and career journey to make the case: I was trained to understand and embrace the art and science of nursing within the realities of closing my own personal knowledge gap on nursing theory (didactic), research and practice.  My first taste of nursing knowledge application and development started when I was assigned to take care of a burn patient for my clinical case study assignment during my medical-surgical clinical rotation. As a BSN prepared student, the ‘why” of what we do as nurses was emphasized.  In this case, the nursing action of “turning and repositioning patients every two hours to prevent pressure sores” opened new insights on my nursing knowledge application beyond just doing a task. I was intrigued by the Braden scale for predicting pressure sores risk developed by Drs. Barbara Braden and Nancy Bergstrom from a conceptual schema that attributed key determinants of pressure ulcers from current evidence–intensity and duration, tissues tolerance of the skin, and supporting structure or pressure (Braden & Bergstrom, 1987). I continued my inquiry by completing my fourth year BSN capstone project on the topic of pressure sores in the medical and surgical population. Moreover, as part of my training, I was introduced to a course on principles of teaching and learning in our curriculum. Nursing students were expected to learn how to write up a philosophy in teaching, practice and research. Learning about philosophy helped me appreciate the importance of nursing values, beliefs, the different ways of knowing and different approaches to nursing education and practice that continue to shape our discipline to this day. I can truly attest to Bruce, Reitz and Lim’s (2014) statement that: “Philosophy is not only understood as relevant but vital to our discipline and professional practice (p. 70).

Completing my Carnegie African Diaspora Fellowship (CADFP) at MUHAS in 2017. Top: Group photo with nursing students and faculty at the MUHAS scientific conference

Later, as part of my graduate studies, I was exposed to concept analysis methods and how to evaluate and apply theories/models to a problem of interest. My graduate education provided me with a great foundation in nursing knowledge grounded within the health promotion and preventive care paradigms at the individual, family, population, community and systems levels of practice (i.e., MS Community/Public Health Clinical Nurse Specialist, MS and PhD in Family Science (focus on Family Life Education and Consultation).  Armed with this knowledge, I was successful in completing a concept analysis paper in my nursing theory class (Eustace & Ilagan, 2010), evaluated the family socio-ecological theory for my family theory class, and applied Berry’s acculturation theory in my doctoral dissertation to study acculturative stress (Eustace, 2007, 2010). Additionally, I learned how to appreciate the difference between conceptualization and operationalization of variables (concepts) across studies and disciplines.

Group photo with nursing students enrolled in the community/public health course. Invited guest lecture to teach concepts and principles of health promotion theories and models.

Overall, this knowledge has been instrumental in my nursing career as a nurse educator and scholar. I continue to learn and try to understand key concepts of interest to further my research agenda in the field of family nursing and how it impacts chronic disease prevention and risk reduction outcomes: “HIV/AIDS family interventions” (Eustace, 2013), “family health nursing intervention” (Eustace, Gray & Curry, 2015),  “male involvement” (Eustace, 2018) and “family nursing” (Eustace, in press). I am currently in the process of conceptualizing a “Family Health Strength-Based Socio-Ecological Model of Breast Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa” (Eustace, Nyamhanga & Lee, 2018) to guide my international collaborative research agenda. This model is grounded in the theoretical foundations for nursing of families: the Bioecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner & Lerner, 2004) and Strength based-nursing (SBN) approach (Gottlieb & Gottlieb, 2017).

An inspirational reunion with my undergraduate dean and mentor –a pioneer of the BSN program in Tanzania, Professor Pauline P. Mella, (middle) with her sponsor Dr Eileen Stuart-Shor at the 2016 American Academy of Nursing Conference

Along the way, I must give credit to my professors early on in my nursing career as well as faculty mentors and external reviewers who have inspired me in the utilization of nursing theories and the process of theorizing nursing knowledge. I wish all nursing students today are exposed to these kind of learning and critical reflective discovery opportunities in their undergraduate or graduate studies.  Similarly, I wish junior and mid-level career nurses interested in nursing theories and the process of theorizing nursing knowledge have access to qualified educators and mentors.

Therefore, the following question remains to be answered: As a community of nurse scholars and practitioners, how are we strategic in building our capacity to meet the demands of developing a generation of nurses who will advance nursing knowledge as part of the future of nursing?  We need a well-trained and competent nurse educator and mentor workforce that is capable of offering the next generation of nurses (i.e., LPNs, RNs, DNPs, PhDs) and nursing paraprofessionals (e.g., nursing assistants, community health workers, and traditional attendants) the opportunity to learn and translate nursing knowledge that will impact health outcomes of interest.  For example, a nursing workforce with expertise in theory who will teach nursing theory and serve on dissertation and doctoral project committees, nursing research grant applications and nursing practice committees. If that were to happen, we will need proactive and revolutionary nurse scholars and leaders to lead the way in the areas of nursing education, nursing research, evidence based-practice, and policy-making as part of the future of nursing.

Food for thought: Why don’t we have clear standards to measure how nursing theoretical concepts and principles are integrated into nursing program curricula as part of our accreditation systems, as part of magnets status applications, and as part of nursing research agenda? Will taking this “backward step (to revisit our standards) as a way forward” be asking for too much from our leaders? Should we do this? How should we do this? If we should not do this, why not?  I welcome readers of nursology.net to reflect and share their thoughts on these epistemological issues and practical challenges in the comments section of this blog.

References

Braden, B., & Bergstrom, N. (1987). A conceptual schema for the study of the etiology of pressure sores. Rehabilitation Nursing, 12(1), 8-16.

Bronfenbrenner, U. & Lerner, R. M. (EdS.) (2004). Making human beings human: Biological perspective on human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bruce, A., Rietze, L., & Lim, A. (2014). Understanding Philosophy in a Nurse’s World: What, Where and Why? Nursing and Health, 2(3), 65-71. doi: 10.13189/nh.2014.020302

Eustace, R.W (in press). Family Nursing. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Families, Marriages, and Intimate Relationships,

Eustace, R.W. (2018) Male Involvement: An Evolving Global Cross-Cultural Concept inFamily-Centered Health Care. NCFR Report, Family Focus: Families and Cultural Intersections, p 4.

Eustace, R. W. (2010). Factors Influencing Acculturative Stress among International Students: From the International Students’ Perspectives. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG.

Eustace, R. W. (2007). Factors influencing acculturative stress among international students in the United States (Doctoral dissertation, Kansas State University).

Eustace, R. W. (2013). A discussion of HIV/AIDS family interventions: implications for family‐focused nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(7), 1660-1672.

Eustace, R.W. (1994). The prevalence of pressure sores in the Medical surgical patients at Muhimbili Medical Center (Undergraduate Research Report). Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences.

Eustace, R.W, Gray, B. & Curry. D. (2015). The meaning of family nursing intervention: what do acute care nurses think? Research and theory for nursing practice, 29(2), 125.

Eustace, R. W., & Ilagan, P. R. (2010). HIV disclosure among HIV positive individuals: a concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(9), 2094-2103.

Eustace, R. W., Nyamhanga, T. Lee, E. (2018). A Discussion of Social Determinants of Breast Cancer among Women in Tanzania: Advantages, Gaps and Future Directions in Family Scholarship. The 2018 Annual NCFR Conference, San Diego, California, November 7-10, 2018

Gottlieb, L. N., & Gottlieb, B. (2017). Strengths-Based Nursing: A Process for Implementing a Philosophy into Practice. Journal of family nursing, 23(3), 319-340.

Institute of Medicine (US). Committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on the Future of Nursing. (2010). The future of nursing: Focus on nursing education. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/ ~/media/  Files/Report %20Files/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing/Nursing%20Education %202010%20Brief.pdf

Notable Works on “Medicalization” by Beverly Hall and Janet Allan

Note:  we are delighted to introduce a new Nursology.net series featuring notable works exploring concepts and issues that are related to the development of nursing knowledge. As this series evolves, you can see the posts in the series “Notable Works” under the main menu “Series/Collections”

In 1988, Janet Allan and Beverly Hall, both prominent nursology scholars and leaders

Janet Allan

in the discipline, published an article titled “Challenging the focus on technology: A critique of the medical model in a changing health care system.” Drawing on a rich body of literature from nursing and other disciplines, and their own insights as nursing scholars, they called on nurses to examine and challenge the dominant model that derives from a model that views the body as a machine, one that needs to be “fixed” if something goes awry, and the process of disease as an evil force to be obliterated.  They called for nurses to question the reification of

Beverly Hall

this model, and to engage in dialogue to explore alternatives that are derived more directly from the values and goals of nursing. In particular, they pointed to the lack of established efficacy of the model (despite claims to the contrary), the serious unaddressed ethical and iatrogenic questions the model engenders, the harmful effects on health and well-being that derive from the model, and the economic consequences (Allan & Hall, 1988).

In 1996, Hall specifically addressed the challenges of medicalization in undermining nursing approaches to chronic mental illness. In her critique, she discussed the ways in which the disease framework of chronic mental illness creates barriers to understanding the person as a person, and creates an unequal power structure that draws attention away from the personhood of the patient and their experience. Stated succinctly, Hall noted: “Nursing, in its attempt to be scientific, has embraced objective theories and diagnostic schemes that are devoid of practical reasoning that has as its inherent focus humanistic values, personal meanings, and subjective language” (Hall, 1996, p. 24).

In 2003, Hall published another remarkable work that represented a departure from the purely “scientific” approach to show what can emerge from an approach that uses practical reasoning, humanistic values, personal meanings and subjective language in exploring what is recognized as the focus of the discipline of nursing- the human response, the human experience.  In this moving essay Hall draws on her own experience of having a life threatening diagnosis of breast cancer, reflecting on the effects of medicalization on her experience.  As she summarized in the abstract, these effects were “(a) giving useless treatments to keep the patient under medical care; (b) demeaning and undermining efforts at self-determination and self-care; and (c) keeping the patient’s life suspended by continual reminders that death is just around the corner, and that all time and energy left must be devoted to ferreting out and killing the disease” (Hall, 2003, p, 53).

Hall’s essay prompted three nurse scholars/practitioners, each with different experiences related to diagnosis and treatment in the current health care system, to respond to Hall’s call for ongoing dialogue.  Richard Cowling, Mona Shattell, and Marti Todd (2006)  added their own personal narrative to the dialogue — Richard as a person who experienced a mitral valve prolapse; Marti living through the experience of ovarian cancer, and Mona who has had very little experience as a patient, but wrote as a nurse and stated:

“Upon reflection on my personal experience with medicalization, I separate myself from my colleagues, to use Hall’s term, “not-yet-diagnosed, against the sick.” (Hall, 2003, p62). I am not conscious of this; however, it is a part of me. Even as I write about my support of Hall’s personal experience of medicalization, I am simultaneously betrothed, naively, to medicalization.

Naivety is not an excuse. In fact, it is what angers me most about medicalization—this overreaching power that silences me.” (Cowling, Shattell & Todd, 2006, p. 299).

Responding to Cowling, Shattell and Todd’s reflections, Hall affirmed their work, and stated: “As a reader, I feel privileged to be on an inside track with personal narrations that are conceived within such a sensitive context” (Hall,2006, p. 305).  She also observed that her own 2003 article, and in the Cowling, Shattell and Todd article, there could be a misunderstanding as to the nature of “medicalization” – that this dynamic is not about helpful or not helpful medical care.  Rather,

“medicalization is a form of organized and systemic oppression that is so culturally entrenched, powerful, and invisible, that everyone’s choices, including those practicing in the biomedical field are manipulated, and options are precluded with scant awareness on the part of any of the actors (Hall, 2006, p. 305.)

Medicalization is the exercise of a power dynamic that restricts the possibility to see any alternatives other than those prescribed by the “canon,” and that insists on excluding any other possibility.  From this frame of reference, western medicine is not the only source of “medicalization” – other forms that we sometimes call “alternatives” can be equally drawn in to the same type of power dynamic that uses the power of prescription to diminish human experience, and that destroys the possibility of an authentic human relationship that nurtures meaning and authenticity in the experience.

Parallel to the writing and deep thought that produced these notable articles, Hall was simultaneously engaged in her own nursing practice in the community, working with people who were experiencing life-threatening illness.  Drawing on her own experiences as a patient and as a nurse, she wrote and self-published a book that provides a glimpse into possibilities beyond the realms in which medicalization has taken hold.  The second edition of her book, published in 2008, explains three challenges of surviving and thriving after a life-threatening diagnosis – the challenge of preparing yourself mentally for surviving and thriving, the challenge of learning that help lies within you and all around you, and the challenge of focusing your attention on what your body needs to heal (Hall, 2008).  These challenges are relevant, as Bev shows, to anyone – whether they continue to live, or they move through dying.

I invite Nursology.net viewers to explore these notable works, and find ways to contribute to the ongoing dialogue that raises awareness of this dynamic, and in doing so explore pathways to shift our focus in the direction of nursing’s own perspectives.

Sources cited:

Allan, J. D., & Hall, B. A. (1988). Challenging the focus on technology: A critique of the medical model in a changing health care system. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 10, 22–34.

Cowling, W. R., 3rd, Shattell, M. M., & Todd, M. (2006). Hall’s authentic meaning of medicalization: An extended discourse. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 29(4), 291–304; discussion 305–7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17135798

Hall, B. A. (1996). The psychiatric model: A critical analysis of its undermining effects on nursing in chronic mental illness. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 18(3), 16–26.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8660009

Hall, B. A. (2003). An essay on an authentic meaning of medicalization: The patient’s perspective. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 26(1), 53–62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12611430

Hall, B. A. (2006). Author’s Response to “Hall’s Authentic Meaning of Medicalization: An Extended Discourse.” ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 29(4), 305.

Hall, B. A.. (2008). Surviving and thriving after a life-threatening diagnosis. AuthorHouse.  https://market.android.com/details?id=book-giE2mx62bAwC . Also available here,

Nursologists and Their Comic Character Avatars


Once upon a time, I had a faculty colleague who had a wonderful sense of humor. She

could even inject humor into the statistics and research methods courses she taught. Unfortunately, I did not have anything close to her sense of humor. However, she assured me that it was very difficult to find humor in meta-theory, which is what I taught (and still teach), alas without any humor included.

Imagine my surprise when Peggy Chinn sent me an internet posting  by Jan Friesen and Skander Elleuche, who “developed a method that provides a simple, flexible framework to translate a complex scientific publication into a broadly accessible comic format” (italics in the original).

In an attempt to finally inject some humor into nursology, I started thinking of how comic characters could be transformed into nursologist avatars. I selected comic characters I knew from my childhood and, more recently, from the exhibits in Fawcett’s Art, Antiques, and Toy Museum, a small art gallery, shop, and toy museum that I co-own with my artist husband, John Fawcett. He is the creative one; I keep track of the finances.

My ideas for avatars for nursologists are:

  • Wonder nursologist (aka Wonder woman), whose special wrist cuffs

    deflect all negative concerns about theory

  • Super nursologist (aka Superman), who leaps over complex philosophical, conceptual,  theoretical, and methodological ideas with a single keystroke
  • Star nursologist (aka Star Trek), who goes where other nursologists are not yet ready to go
  • Fantastic nursologist (aka from

    Disney’s Fantasia movie) who converts theoretical knowledge to practice protocols.

  • Mighty nursologist (aka Mighty Mouse), who establishes nurse corporations that contract with clinical agencies to provide nursological qua nursological services to participants in practice (nurse corporations are Grayce Sills’ idea, nursing qua nursing is Jean Watson’s idea)
  • Terminator nursology (aka The Terminator), who eliminates all negative thoughts about conceptual models and theories
  • Spider nursologist (aka Spiderman), who climbs to the heights of nursology

    glory.

  • Yoda nursologist (aka Yoda from Star Wars), whose light saber illuminates all that is nursology.

I invite readers of this blog to contribute their ideas for comic character avatars for nursologists!

The Impossibility of Thinking “Atheoretically”

Some nursologists have claimed that they are “atheoretical.” When asked what they mean, they tend to say that they do not subscribe to or use a particular conceptual model or theory when conducting research or practicing. However, it is, according the physicist turned philosopher of science, Sir Karl R. Popper (1965), it is “absurd” to think that each of us does not have a “horizon of expectations” for whatever we are observing or doing (p. 47). Continuing, Popper (1965) claimed that everyone always has expectations, even if not in conscious awareness.

Following from Popper, I submit that it is impossible to think “atheoretically.” Instead, I submit that every nursologist has a “horizon of expectations” in the form of a conceptual frame of reference that guides what she or he is observing or doing as research is conducted, curricula are constructed, interactions are occurring with people who seek nursologist services, and nursologist services are administered. That conceptual frame of reference is what I refer to as a conceptual model or a grand theory.

I suspect that every nursologist agrees that she or he “talk[s] nursing” (Chalmers, as cited in Chalmers, Kershaw, Melia, & Kendrich,, 1990, p. 34), thinks nursing (Nightingale, 1993; Perry, 1985), and engages in thinking nursing (Allison & Renpenning, 1999) rather than mindlessly doing tasks and carrying out physicians’ orders (Le Storti et al., 1999). But what do those nursologists regard as nursing? What is meant by talking or thinking nursing? I also suspect that every nursologist agrees that she or he engages in critical thinking and clinical reasoning. If so, what is the frame of reference for the thinking or reasoning? Something has to capture one’s attention (Myra Levine (1991),  developer of the Conservation Model, called what captures one’s attention provocative facts, which are noticed within the context of conservation of energy, structural integrity, personal integrity, and social integrity.

Thus, the challenge for each nursologist who regards self as thinking “atheoretically” is to identify what her or his frame of reference (horizon of expectations) is. What is that person’s view of who are the human beings or documents that are appropriate for whatever activity is being done (i.e., research, practice, education, administration)? What is the person’s view of the relevant environment? What is the person’s view of what constitutes wellness, illness, and disease? What is the person’s view of what nursologists’ do in practice – what is worthy of assessment, how are priorities set when planning, what interventions are appropriate, and most of all, what outcomes are expected?

It is possible that my claim that being “atheoretical” is impossible. Therefore, in closing, I urge those of you who claim you are “atheoretical” to respond to this blog and let everyone know what you mean by being “atheoretical” in all of your nursologist activities.

References

Allison, S. E., & Renpenning, K. (1999). Nursing administration in the 21st century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chalmers, H., Kershaw, B., Melia, K., & Kendrich, M. (1990). Nursing models: Enhancing or inhibiting practice? Nursing Standard, 5(11), 34–40.

Le Storti, L. J., Cullen, P. A., Hanzlik, E. M., Michiels, J. M., Piano, L. A., Ryan, P. L., & Johnson, W. (1999). Creative thinking in nursing education: Preparing for tomorrow’s challenges. Nursing Outlook, 47, 62–66.

Levine, M. E. (1991). The conservation principles: A model for health. In K. M. Schaefer & J. B. Pond (Eds.), Levine’s conservation model: A framework for nursing practice (pp. 1–11). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.

Nightingale, K. (1993). Editorial. British Journal of Theatre Nursing, 3(5), 2.

Perry, J. (1985). Has the discipline of nursing developed to the stage where nurses do “think nursing?” Journal of Advanced Nursing, 10, 31–37.

Popper, K. R. (1965). Conjectures and refutations: The growth of scientific knowledge. New York, NY: Harper and Row.

Martha E. Rogers, RN, MSc , EdD (Canada)

Guardians of the Discipline
Downlaads (used by permission)
Transformative Learning article
Canadian Nursing in the Year 2020
Enchantment of the Soul
Syllabus: Conceptual Basis of Nursing Practice
Syllabus: The Nature of Nursing Knowledge

Note: we are delighted to introduce a new Nursology.net series – “Guardians of the Discipline” featuring notable nurse leaders who have made significant achievements to assure the integrity and protection of nursology values and ideals.  We begin this series with Canada’s outstanding leader and scholar, Martha E. Rogers.

Martha E. Rogers (York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Martha E. Rogers is a Canadian nursing scholar and consultant who has made substantial contributions to advancing nursing knowledge. She is currently a Senior Scholar at York University, Toronto, Ontario and was the founder, and remains the director, of Canadian Nursing Consultants. Her contributions in advancing an appreciation of nursing knowledge cross both those roles and fall into 3 major categories that overlap and inform each other:  1). curricular design and pedagogy; 2) consulting work with nursing organizations to promote conscious application of conceptual models practice and in organizational design, and 3) her work on transformative learning in nursing, alternative nursing futures, and development of the concept of enchantment of the nursing soul. 

 Being In a unique position as a nurse who had focused  on future studies during her doctorate, Martha was commissioned by the Canadian Nurses Association in 1995 to develop future scenarios for nursing in Canada in the year 2020.  The book, Canadian Nursing in the Year 2020 was published by the Canadian Nurses Association for a number of years after it was written.  Download this document here (by permission of the author and copyright holder). That work was clearly informed by Martha’s extensive involvement in the previous decade in helping nurses to understand and embrace nursing conceptual frameworks, whether teaching post-RN baccalaureate students or practicing nurses in their workplace.

 In Canadian Nursing in the Year 2020, Martha created 4 scenarios of nursing in 2020 and invited readers to create a 5th.  On the eve of 2020, it is as relevant and sobering to read as it was when it was first published. Elements of each of the scenarios are recognizable in the present time, likely to significantly different degrees in different countries, cultures, and health care systems.  At the end of each scenario, readers  are invited to reflect on their reactions to the scenario and consider what action is necessary to increase or decrease the chances of them happening.

Canadian Nursing in the Year 2020 concludes with a section entitled, “Can one person make a difference.” Believing that to be possible, Martha asserted that maintaining hope and the personal power to take action requires engaging nurses’ minds , hearts, and souls. Critical minds (mind), caring about people (heart), and connecting with the meaning and purpose of nursing  (soul) are among the essentials she identifies as necessary for us to believe that each of us can make a difference. Martha explored in considerably more depth, the concept of the nursing soul in an unpublished article entitled Enchantment of the Soul

 These ideas were informed by Martha’s early nursing practice and education.  In meeting with her recently, I asked her what first sparked her interest in nursing conceptual frameworks and she replied it was the professors in her Post-RN baccalaureate degree. So, it is not surprising that she began to take action in her position as as a Clinical Nurse Specialist at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, where she also served as Conceptual Framework Coordinator. Later, as an academic, Martha taught in a Post-RN BScN program at York.  One course she developed and taught focused on The Nature of Nursing Knowledge, and a second on the Conceptual Basis of Nursing Practice nursing. The transformative learning  approaches she developed in an unpublished manuscript as an approach to “facilitate “nurses’ learning and use of nursing conceptual frameworks” are evident in both course outlines.  As the School of Nursing evolved, Martha’s influence was evident again as the School adopted a caring-human science philosophy as a conceptual framework.1

 As a nursing consultant, Martha conducted many workshops and spoke at numerous conferences in Canada and the U.S. about transformative learning and facilitating nurses’ understanding and use of nursing conceptual frameworks. An example of this approach is seen in one of the videos she produced, “Conceptual Frameworks in Nursing Practice”, which is included below.

 Both through her academic and consulting roles, Martha was involved in research reporting the implementation and/or evaluation of use of nursing conceptual models in practice.  2,3, 4,5, 4 

Martha was passionate about the uniqueness of nursing knowledge and hoped to pass that passion on to others. Her goal was to facilitate nurses’ critical examination of dominant assumptions and values and the practice norms based upon them, and help them instead to value and give voice to their own nursing knowledge and imagine how nursing practice and health care institutions might be different if nursing values and knowledge were  a valued priority. I asked her recently what she thought her greatest contribution was as a “guardian of the discipline.”  This was her reply:  “If there is anything to be said about my work it would be that I held a belief about the beauty and potential power of unique nursing knowledge. It was my quest to explore nursing knowledge and to help others explore it through deep personal reflection and through critical appraisal of and emancipation from dominant paradigms.

References

 1.   Lewis S, Rogers M, Naef R. Caring-Human Science Philosophy in Nursing Education: Beyond the Curriculum Revolution. Int J Hum Caring. 2006;10(4):31-38.

2.   Rogers ME. Creating a Climate for the Implementation of a Nursing Conceptual Framework. JCEN. 1989;20(3):112-116.

3.   Shea H, Rogers M, Ross E, Tucker D, Fitch M, Smith I. Implementation of nursing conceptual models: observations of a multi-site research team. Can J Nurs Adm. 1989;2(1):15-20.

4.   Rogers, M., Jones Paul, L., Clarke, J., MacKay, C. Potter, M. Ward, W. The use of the Roy Adaptation Model in Nursing Administration. Can J Nurs Adm. 1991, June:21-26.

5.       Fitch, M., Rogers, M., Ross, E., Shea, H., Smith I., Tucker, D. Developing a plan to evaluate the use of nursing conceptual frameworks. Can J Nurs Adm. 1991, March/April:22-27.

 

 

Nursing Philosophy Conference in August – and More!

We have added a new 2019 “Future Event” related to the development of nursing knowledge – the 13th Philosophy in the Nurse’s World & 23rd International Philosophy of Nursing Conference, to be held in Victoria, BC, Canada,  August 18-20, 2019.  In addition to the conference information, you will now find two important dates related to this conference in our “Due Dates” sidebar feature —

  • The abstract due date is February 28, 2019
  • Early bird registration ends on June 21, 2019

But that is not all! In addition to our regular blog posts at least every Tuesday, Nursology.net is constantly being updated with the addition of nursing theories, models, philosophies, landmark events, additions to recent past events, and exemplars. To help you keep up, we have added a sidebar “Recently Added” feature.  We hope you will visit Nursology.net often and check out the resources that are available related to past, present and future nursing knowledge development!

You can do it — contribute to the Nursology.net blog!

We hope everyone has noticed that Nursology.net has heaps of opportunities for people to  contribute – but did you know that you can contribute to our blog?  This blog is a multi-author blog (MAB), plus we welcome guest authors – which gives you an opportunity to become familiar with the process of blogging.  But wait a minute – I can already “hear” in my mind some of the push-back to this idea:  “I don’t have time to blog.” “Writing a blog does not contribute to the list of publications I need for promotion – I can’t waste time blogging.” “I need citations to my work and blog posts do not get cited.”  OK – I hear you!  But before you turn away from this idea, indulge me for a few moments and consider a some good reasons you might begin in the world of blogging!

  • Blogs give you an opportunity to write in a different “voice” – a more relaxed tone that reaches people in ways that formal writing does not.  You can express your opinion, test out an idea to see if it “flies,” and ask your readers for specific feedback.
  • In fact, writing a blog post helps you develop the courage to use your voice — a challenge nurses often face.  My idea for this blog post was in part prompted by a post in an entirely different field – written by Marte C.W. Solheim from Norway, who tells a compelling story about finding the courage, as a PhD Student and then a recent graduate, to use her voice in the field of economics and political science.
  • Blog posts do not take away from the necessary work involved in your scholarship – instead the process of writing a blog post is like “thinking” time – it is an opportunity to reflect on points of particular importance to the ongoing development of your ideas.
  • Blog posts are being cited more and more often, and any social media mention of published work contributes to the “altmetric attention score” that is now displayed on published articles to indicate the amount and reach of the content in an author’s published works.  One of  the very important features that we are including throughout Nursology.net is the name of the contributor of content on any page (and on the blog), and the date the information was posted, in order that Nursology.net content can be accurately and adequately cited, with due credit to the appropriate author.
  • Your blog post provides readers an opportunity to give you feedback – much like a presentation at a conference – even if you do not invite it!  Feedback on your blog post is documented evidence of how your ideas are being received.  And sometimes they contribute to the development of your ideas.
  • Writing a blog post is not nearly as hard as you might think!  Blog posts are short, to the point and can include any kind of commentary or opinion that you want to include.  Of course if you draw on another source for some of your ideas (as I have done in this post) – there are no style manuals or formating requirements – as long as you find a way to point accurately to your sources, you are good to go!
  • Blog posts have the potential to reach an audience that you would never reach in a published article — nursology colleagues who might never see your published articles,  important scholars in other fields, and most important, the public whose interests your work is intended to serve. As Patrick Dunleavy pointed out on a recent LSE Impact blog, having invested hours and hours of time on your work, why not spend a couple of hours crafting an accessible blog post that has the potential to reach a broad audience?
  • Writing for blogs is rapidly becoming a new form of scholarly communication that draws on many of the ideals of the open-access model – blogs are also referred to as short-form digital publishing.  They are intended to broadcast your ideas as widely as possible.
  • You do not have to trudge through the long and arduous process of journal or book publishing, especially if you blog on your own blog!  Blogs are open to “public review” – a form of review that is not replacing the very valuable process of anonymous peer review, but is increasingly valued as a way to determine the worth of ideas in a public forum. If someone takes issue with your ideas, in all likelihood you will find out about it in short order.  This is a huge benefit — you cannot adequately address what you do not know is “out there” and blog readers are one of your best sources to explore the landscape of opinion related to your ideas.

The nursology.net  multi-authored blog (MAB)  team members are committed to writing regularly for the blog in order to have a new post at least weekly, and to provide a diversity of perspective, style, and content!  Some of our bloggers write their posts directly, using the handy “add a post” feature on wordpress.com (where our site is hosted). Others  send me the content for their blog either by email or using our handy blog submission form (also found in the sidebar on every Nursology.net page!). You can see who is on our team in the right sidebar, showing everyone’s name and a link to their most recent posts.

As the lead blogger,  I  make sure the links and other details are in order, and schedule each post 2 to 4 weeks in advance. If your post is time-sensitive, we will post it at whatever date is optimal. If I have any questions about something that is not clear, or if I detect something that needs to be double-checked for accuracy, either I, or someone else on our management team will be in touch to make sure your post is the best it can be. We might do a bit of light editing to correct spelling or obvious grammatical errors, but we do not aim for perfection!  What we do NOT do is revise or change your own message – we want your post to reflect your own ideas, your own voice.  We welcome controversial content, especially when you include sound rationales for your perspective and welcome open discussion.  The only thing we will intervene with is anything that is disrespectful or harmful, or “flaming” of other individuals or groups.

So this is our invitation to you!!  Use this opportunity to try your hand at blogging!  Let me know about your idea and we will assist you in every way possible to become a published short-form digital author (or if you prefer, a published blogger)!

 

 

A Tribute to Margaret Ann Newman, PhD, FAAN (October 10, 1933 – December 18, 2018)

newmancelebration

Go to Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC) Theory Page
Download Newman HEC Reference List
Go to 2016 Newman Scholars Dialogue
Newman Theory/Research/Practice Society in Japan
Memorial Speech by Marlaine Smith
Memorial Speech by Dorothy Jones

Margaret Newman receiving Living Legend award

Dr. Margaret Ann Newman expanded the nursology horizon over the past 40 years with her thought-provoking work. She advanced the knowledge of the discipline of nursing and her wisdom continues to expand through the work of people inspired by her presence and written works. Margaret Newman’s transforming presence extends beyond boundaries of time and space.

As Margaret’s time in her body was narrowing, her niece, Donna Jean Mehr, asked me to help her write Margaret’s obituary for the Memphis newspaper. That obituary contains the chronological details of Margaret Newman’s life and work. In this tribute for the Nursology.net community, I would like to focus on the ways in which Margaret expanded our understanding of health, nursing theory, and nursing practice; embraced and advanced a paradigm of wholeness; and exemplified a spirit of generosity.

Margaret Newman Expanded our Understanding of Health, Nursing Theory, and Nursing Practice 

After graduating from Baylor University at the age of 21, Margaret returned home to Memphis to work and care for her mother who had been diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The process of caring for her mother was transformative. Not knowing the trajectory of the disease, Newman learned to live day by day, fully immersed in the present (Newman, 2008a). She (2008b) recounted learning that “each day is precious and that the time of one’s life is contained in the present” (p. 225). This realization permeated Margaret’s philosophy of nursing and her writing throughout her life. She came to realize that simply having a disease does not make a person unhealthy. Although Margaret’s mother’s life was confined by the disease, her life was not defined by the disease. In other words, Margaret’s mother could experience health and wholeness in the midst of having a chronic and progressive disease.

When her mother died, Margaret entered nursing school at the University of Tennessee in Memphis. In her studies, she read Dorothy Johnson’s article “The Significance of Nursing Care,” which asserted that nursing was different from medicine, and “therefore the underlying knowledge was different,” which in 1961 was a “revolutionary” claim (Newman, 1994a, p. 153).  Newman described Johnson’s article as “a bolt of light piercing the darkness and confusion” as she was trying to apply the mostly medical knowledge she was learning at UT College of Nursing to her nursing practice (p. 153). From that point forward, describing the body of knowledge that characterized nursing as its own discipline became Margaret’s career-long odyssey (1994a). Drawn by Johnson’s work, Newman entered the MS in medical-surgical nursing program at the University of California, San Francisco. During her master’s studies, Margaret published a manuscript titled “Identifying and Meeting Patient’s Needs in Short-Span Nurse-Patient Relationships” (Newman, 1966). Her focus on nursing presence to that which is meaningful in the life of the patient was taking root. 

After graduating from UCSF in 1964, the medical director of the Clinical Research Center at Bowld Hospital recruited Margaret back to Memphis to become the Clinical Research Center Director. The Research Center was affiliated with the U of TN and thus the unit on which it was housed was independent of the hospital. Newman began by educating the medical director on the nature of nursing practice so that he would not expect the nursing staff to do things that physicians could do for themselves, or which staff from other departments could do. She gave each nurse one day a week in the library for scholarly development so that the nurses could enrich their nursing knowledge base. Newman was increasingly convinced that nurses who are fully present with patients while doing the tasks of nursing can comprehend in a holistic sense what patients need to achieve a greater sense of health. The writings of nurse theorist Martha Rogers drew Newman’s attention in, as Rogers was articulating a new paradigm of health that expanded the nature of nursing practice. Rogers’ science of unitary human beings resonated with Newman’s conceptualization of health and nursing, and enhanced her ability to see the whole by concentrating on pattern. Newman knew she wanted to pursue a PhD in nursing and went to NYU to study with Rogers. After receiving her PhD in 1971, she joined Martha Rogers on the NYU nursing faculty. While at NYU, Newman (1972) published a seminal work on Nursing’s theoretical evolution and conducted postdoctoral workshops on nursing theory development. She spent the summer of 1976 consulting with nurses in Brazil on the development of the knowledge of the discipline of nursing. In 1977, Margaret took a position as the professor-in-charge of graduate studies at Penn State University, where she published the first primer on Theory Development in Nursing (Newman, 1979) and initiated nursing theory think tanks (see Peggy Chinn’s November 13 Blog). 

Newman introduced her theory of health as expanding consciousness at a nursing theory conference in New York in 1978. In her talk, she asserted that illness and health are a unitary process moving through varying degrees of organization and disorganization and manifest as pattern and meaning in people’s lives. She stressed that the responsibility of the nurse is to help people recognize the power within them to move to higher levels of consciousness, with consciousness defined as the information of the systems—the capacity of the system to interact with the environment (Newman, 1994b, p. 33).  The manifestation of disease is an explication of the underlying pattern of the person. In a mutual relationship, the nurse and patient focus on the meaning of the pattern, knowing that new insights will arise into how to move forward. Disease may bring the greatest insight into meaning and pattern—into expanding consciousness, and thus into health. Perhaps of consolation to those of us who are deeply mourning the loss of Margaret’s physical presence in our lives is what she wrote in the introduction to the 1994 edition of her Health as Expanding Consciousness book: “The expansion of consciousness is unending. In this way we can embrace aging and death. There is peace and meaning in suffering. We are free from all the things we have feared—loss, death, dependency. We can let go of fear” (Newman, 1994b, pp. xxiii-xxiv).

With an expanded philosophy of health, so too comes an expanded view of nursing. Readers are encouraged to delve into the writing of Margaret Newman and savor the rich banquet of nursing ideas laid before them in her published works, particularly the 1994 Health as Expanding Consciousness and 2008 Transforming Presence: The Difference that Nursing Makes books.

On the note of nursing presence, one of my favorite Margaret Newman stories to tell new nursing students involves Margaret and her NYU and UMN colleague, Ellen Eagan. After they retired as Nursing Professors from the UMN School of Nursing, Margaret and Ellen lived in the same building in downtown St. Paul, Minnesota. Margaret had a cat named Punk, whom she cherished. Punk was sick and needed an injection, so Margaret called Ellen to come over and help her. They were preparing to give Punk his shot. Margaret was lovingly holding Punk in her arms. Ellen took the syringe with the medication, approached Margaret and Punk, stopped, and asked Margaret, “Would you rather be the nurse?” Margaret smiled and replied, “I am being the nurse!”

Margaret Newman Embraced a Paradigm of Wholeness

Newman called nurses to see the whole of the patterns of people’s lives in relationship to their environment and to respond to what is meaningful. Newman (2002) proposed that “attention to pattern constitutes the unitary grasp of knowledge the discipline seeks” and thus takes nursing knowledge to a higher level, transcending what is currently known and understood (p. 2). She taught us that it is very difficult to comprehend the enormity of wholeness, cautioning that the linear words of the academic world limit our understanding. She called attention to relationships, stressing that the “holistic mode of consciousness is nonlinear, simultaneous, intuitive, and concerned with relationships rather than the elements that are related” (Newman, 2008, p. 39). Newman gave the example of focusing on the elements of salt—sodium and chlorine, which can be seen, while not seeing the bond between them, which makes them salt. Strain to see and comprehend the relationships, the ties that bind. Comprehending the whole involves intuition and simultaneous appreciation for that which is seen and that which is perceived in other ways (2008). Strive to see the pattern of interactions. Pattern is a characteristic of wholeness. Wholeness is not something that can be achieved in that it is already there. Wholeness is “the bedrock of our reality”—one cannot lose or gain it (Newman, 1999, p. 228).

During her years as nurse theorist and professor at the University of Minnesota, Margaret strove to eliminate the confusion related to the nature of the discipline of nursing; she wanted to clearly articulate its focus. Margaret’s work was completely rooted in the unitary paradigm of nursing, first articulated by Martha Rogers (1970), yet it was clear that other nurses’ work was rooted in different paradigms. She collaborated with colleagues Marilyn Sime, who was involved in lab research, and Sheila Corcoran-Perry, whose nursing research focused on family systems. Together they (Newman, Sime, & Corcoran-Perry, 1991) determined that the overarching focus of the nursing discipline was “caring in the human health experience” under which fell three unique paradigms of nursing research and practice: the particulate-deterministic, the interactive-integrative, and the unitary-transformative (with the first word indicating the nature of reality and the second word indicating the nature of change in each paradigm). Newman subsequently articulated that the unitary-transformative paradigm was inclusive of the knowledge and perspectives of the other two paradigms (Newman, 2002).

Margaret Newman continued to write and speak about the unitary transformative nature of nursing praxis and further explicated the concept of wholeness, which was a major theme in the Newman Scholars’ Dialogues that were held every few years in Memphis or Boston. In 2008, Newman, Smith, Pharris, and Jones published “The Focus of the Discipline Revisited” in Advances in Nursing Science to clearly articulate nursing practice as a unified whole and to exhort nurses to embrace a shared meaning to bring coherence to nursing practice. Newman et al. (2008) proposed seven concepts that are central to the discipline of nursing: a) health, the intent of the relationship; b) caring, the nature of the relationship; c) consciousness, the informational pattern of the relationship; d) mutual process, the way in which the relationship unfolds; e) patterning, the evolving configuration of the relationship; f) presence, the resonance of the relationship; and g) meaning, the importance of the relationship.

Margaret Newman Exemplified Generosity of Spirit

When working with students, Margaret did not control, but rather sought to understand through dialogue. She hosted frequent dialogues with her students and colleagues. She encouraged her students to explore the theory of health as expanding consciousness in the context of their own work and culture. She took joy and expressed deep interest as students reached new insights. The nature of Margaret’s theory compelled her to recognize and appreciate the evolving pattern of her theoretical propositions. A poem Margaret wrote in 1985 describes her approach to relationships:

I don’t like controlling, manipulating other people.
I don’t like deceiving, withholding, or treating people as subjects or objects.
I don’t like acting as an objective non-person.
I do like interacting authentically, listening, understanding, communicating freely.
I do like knowing and expressing myself in mutual relationships.
                                 —Margaret Newman

Margaret Newman did not need to, nor did she seek, to insert herself or her theory into the work of others. She delighted in watching patterns unfold. She knew we were all one unified whole and she did not need to do anything but be fully present to what was before her. Dottie Jones and I had the great honor of being with Margaret in June, facilitating the American Academy of Nursing’s Nursing Theory-Guided Practice expert panel meeting from her bedside. Margaret listened intently to the dialogue. She said one last sentence to the group: “Don’t forget about the philosophical foundation of nursing knowledge and what is embedded in that.”

Memorial Service

A memorial service to celebrate Margaret Ann Newman’s life will take place in the Chapel of Trezevant Manor in Memphis, Tennessee on Thursday January 10 beginning at 1 p.m., followed by a reception. Marlaine Smith and Dottie Jones will be offering reflections at the memorial service. In lieu of flowers, those who are able can donate to the Margaret Newman Endowed Chair at the UT College of Nursing.

Reflections on the Transforming Presence of Margaret Ann Newman:

The following reflections come from the American Academy of Nurses’ Nursing Theory-Guided Practice Expert Panel dialogue section and from emails and cards:

Sometimes a person enters our lives and it changes us forever. Margaret was one of those people for me and for many. Her contribution to the nursing discipline lives on.
In gratitude,
    – Elizabeth Ann Manhart Barrett

 I am sad about the Earth now missing Margaret, such a great treasure. Her writing always included “breakthroughs” and that will continue to inspire and enlighten. Her Spirit will be near.
     – Dr. Patricia Chrisham, Professor Emerita, University of MN School of Nursing

I feel now as if all were a miracle which happened to me;  I met Dr. Margaret Newman at the University of Minnesota; she accepted me as her doctoral student; I worked  with her and learned a lot in a new nursing paradigm together with my classmates; and, I earned the degree of PhD at U of M.  I came back to Japan and had a lot of opportunities to teach health as expanding consciousness to graduate students of OCNS and others and worked with them and clients with cancer; and I with fellows who love HEC created the Non-profit Organization Corporation: Newman Theory/Research/Practice in Japan and are working with supporters very interestingly. I think this is really a kind of divine gift to me. I cannot write well in English. It is too much. I am standing in awe.
    – Dr. Emiko Endo*, Japan

[*It is important to note that Emiko Endo traveled from Japan to Memphis in November to be with Margaret. On November 16, Emiko, Donna Jean Mehr (Margaret’s niece), Katheryn Skinner (Margaret’s friend), and Carolyn Graff (UT Memphis College of Nursing Professor), had the last theoretical dialogue with Margaret: At this meeting, Emiko “truly appreciated that Margaret’s assertion, ‘Vulnerability, suffering, disease, death do not diminish us’ is really true.”]

Margaret taught me SO much about theory development when I was a student in her doctoral course at NYU–I am forever grateful to her for that, which catalyzed my interest in the relation of theory and research. I am confident that Margaret’s contributions to nursology will live on forever. Her thoughts, her voice, and her publications are a continuing inspiration to all of us! She already is missed. I am so glad that she was honored as an AAN Living Legend.
   – Jacqui Fawcett

Of course, I knew this day was coming, but the moment holds its own meaning. Since I read your message, I’ve been in another world, flooded with memories and very distracted in trying to “do Christmas”. Years ago, I was with Margaret when she got the phone call with the news that Martha Rogers had died. We went on with our discussion but Margaret was ‘spaced out’. I knew the depth of feelings there, so personal and vital, yet there we were carrying on with the day. I feel like this now – surreal. How our lives are interconnected! I’m glad I had my visit to her when she was still in her apartment. She took me right into the midst of her world in Memphis, which was so precious.  Now, Margaret’s going brings the time to remember, reflect and make sense of the deeply moving phase of my life when I went to study with her at UMIN. Not that her part in my life can disappear! How vital it was, including being the catalyst for so many of my special friendships! That dialogue doesn’t release us, does it? It just keeps unfolding, taking each of us with it! My decade as a student with her at UMN (1988-1998) involved so many memorable activities as well as the intense dialogue. Always at Christmas now I remember the Christmas day she cooked a special festive dinner when I was so far from home (she was a very good cook). We laughed a lot and went walking in the snow. When I stayed with her in Tucson she drove me across the border into Mexico. In Tucson we walked in snow blanketing the magnificent cacti in the desert. Memories are flooding in!
   – Dr. Merian Litchfield, Wellington, New Zealand

Margaret made such an important impact on nursing. I think she’d see this as a last step in expanding consciousness.
   – Anastasia Pharris-Ciurej, PhD, MSN, Stockholm, Sweden

 Our nursing society lost a truly inspiring person who will be remembered. With her work she was and will be present for ever also among Slovene nurses and nursing students. Her legacy will also in future link us in join effort on improving the discipline and science of nursing care.
She will be missed.

     – Majda Pajnkihar, PhD, RN, FAAN, Professor and Dean, University of Maribor

Margaret taught me theory development in the doctoral program at NYU.  I’ve used what she taught in my theoretical thinking.  She also helped me with the concept of time, which was one of the concepts for my dissertation.  Certainly an intelligent person who was caring and giving of her knowledge.  She still lives in many ways in the pandimensional universe integral with the energy/spirit of many people.
   –  John Phillips, 2018

 Margaret was a gift to us all who study nursing and are committed to it as a discipline. Her light will shine on into the future as she laid the foundation for us all toward an evolving consciousness for nursing and our world. A heart opening Wonder Woman.
   – Jean Watson

We invite your comments on the ways in which Margaret Newman inspired you.

References

Johnson, D.E. (1961). The significance of nursing care. American Journal of Nursing, 61(11), 63-66.

Newman, M. A. (1966). Identifying and meeting patients’ needs in short-span nurse-patient relationships. Nursing Forum, 5(1), 76–86.

Newman, M. A. (1979). Theory development in nursing. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis. Newman, M. A. (1994a). Theory for nursing practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 7(4), 153–157.

Newman, M. A. (1994b). Health as expanding consciousness (2nd ed.). Boston: Jones and Bartlett (NLN Press).

Newman, M. A. (1997).  Experiencing the whole. Advances in Nursing Science, 20(1), 34-39.

Newman, M. A. (1999). The rhythm of relating in a paradigm of wholeness. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 31(3), 227–230.

Newman, M. A. (2002). The pattern that connects. Advances in Nursing Science, 24(3), 1–7.

Newman, M.A. (2008a). Transforming presence: The difference that nursing makes. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Newman, M.A. (2008b). It’s about time. Nursing Science Quarterly, 21(3), 225-227.

Newman, M. A., Sime, A. M., & Corcoran-Perry, S. A. (1991). The focus of the discipline of nursing. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(1), 1–6.

Newman, M. A., Smith, M. C., Pharris, M. D., & Jones, D. (2008). The focus of the discipline revisited. Advances in Nursing Science, 31(1), E16–E27.

Rogers, M. (1970). An introduction to the theoretical basis of nursing. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.

For more information about Margaret’s life, see the Memphis Funeral Home obituary

In lieu of flowers, contributions can be made to the fund for the Margaret Newman Endowed Chair

At an AAN meeting – From Left to Right: Dorothy Jones, Margaret Newman (center) and former students and Newman Scholars Dr. Jacqueline Somerville and Dr. Angeline Peters-Lewis

from left to right: Margaret Pharris, Dorothy Jones, Margaret Newman, and Marlaine Smith. Taken in 2008 after the Newman Scholars Dialogue, Boston,MA

Margaret with advisees

Margaret, Maggie Pharris, Ellen Egan

Celebrating Margaret’s 81st birthday

Margaret with Richard Cowling

Gigi Oaks, Susan Drummon, Rebecca Meyer with Margaret

Pharris, Litchfield, Newman Lamendola,Jones

Margaret Newman and Martha Alligood, taken at the University of Tennessee Knoxville in spring 1995. Photo by Sandra Thomas

 

Margaret Newman young

Margaret Newman young adult

Margaret Newman child

The Experience of Nursology.net

Just before the holidays, my long-time friend, Sue Huether, said to me after spending some time on Nursology.net – “Peggy, this is not just a website – it’s an experience!” Her comment inspired our new site tagline because in fact, Nursology.net has indeed turned out to be an experience!

Even for those of us building the site, it has been an experience. We have all been involved in the work of developing and teaching nursing ideas for many decades, but the experience of the website has led us to new appreciation for the depth, the breadth and the significance of our discipline.

We invite you to experience Nursology.net often! Spend some time clicking around in every section, following links to information all over the web! Follow our blog, and visit the site often because we will have new content just about every week. Most important, we have built in ways for you to participate in every section! Not sure how to get involved, just let us know!