During the “Decolonizing Nursing: What? Why? How? webinar on September 23rd, there were questions posed for the panelists that could not be addressed due to time constraints. We promised to post responses to these questions on the Nursology.net blog – and here is the first of those responses!
The first question we are addressing is from nursologistRudolf Cymorr Kirby Martinez in the Philippines, and a blog contributor to Nursology.net! The Philippines has provided well educated and competent nurses to fill nursing shortages in the United States for decades. Dr. Martinez posed the following question:
From the perspective of a developing country who supplied nurses for developed countries, colonization of nursing, especially education, is often masked as globalization. In the process of conforming to the requirements for working abroad and in the guise of being “globally competitive”, the local and distinct practice of nursing is set aside. The nursing curriculum of some developing countries are more American than local.
I would like to begin by stating that the idea of developed and developing countries is one of the most colonial ideas. It centers the vision of superiority made by the “developed” nations over the others. These “developed” nations have been characterized for invading and exploiting the resources of other countries. Also, this notion underlies that the “developing” want to be like the “developed,” rather than considering their greatness and contributing to their self and authentic growing.
I agree in that, in many instances, globalization is a masked form of colonization. The “international cooperation” must be a “reparation” made by the colonizer for more than 500 years of historic colonization of other nations, which remains even today. This critical state of oppression, exclusion, and discrimination is a product of an historical political and economical relationship between the invaders and the invaded, in which the dominant nations must be accountable of their acts dating back to before the invasion of Abya Yala (word used by the native tribes of Latin America to refer to their territory as an indivisible macrocontinent from south to north (from Argentina to Canada) and that I will use here instead of “America” as a form of vindication..)
Having this global perspective, the idea that we have been sold (to us, the developing ones, the others) grounded in otherness is that we want to be like them (the dominant and developed). Such an idea has led, in many instances, to lose our own identities and, even nowadays in the north, the very identity of nursing is blurred. Then, the invitation is to reclaim what is ours, what has been denied to us and, in the other hand, to the dominant white elite of the discipline to recognize the epistemologies outside of what they consider the core of the discipline. This will be the first step in a co-construction of a new epistemology of Nursing and in the rescuing of the local identities and practices of Nursing.
I do not believe nursing education in some countries is masked as globalization. I note you are from the Philippines and nursing education is part of the economic development blueprint of your country. As a past member of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, I can remember vividly and somewhat in shock, a presentation by government officials telling us emphatically that nursing was part of their blueprint for globalization. Even today, physicians who would have a hard time getting credentialed in this country are retrained in your country as nurses who then immigrant to the US. Economists suggest that countries taking part in the global economy are experiencing more economic growth and poverty reduction than those countries which remain in isolation. So, globalization is both good and bad. However, the nursing community can turn this around by also seeing it as an opportunity for increased communication, and cultural exchange. How might beliefs and practices of other countries humanize and change nursing worldwide. How might nurses from other countries help nursing in your country design a more authentic part of your curriculum as well. You can certainly honor and embrace your cultural heritage as is done in the US, Canada, and other parts of the world. As an African American woman, I honor and embrace my ancestry and believe that it makes me unique and powerfully different. Others can do the same.
On September 23, 2021, Nursology.net and the Center for Nursing Philosophy sponsored a powerful panel presentation focused on the topic “Decolonizing Nursing.” Seven nurse scholars of color shared their perspectives and their current work to bring the perspectives of people of color to the center, to empower anti-racist thought and action, and to activate real social justice in nursing and healthcare. The panel was moderated by Miriam Bender, PhD, RN, Director of the Center for Nursing Philosophy at the University of California Irvine. Peggy Chinn and Marlaine Smith from the Nursology.net management team provided technical support for the event. We are delighted to share the recording of the event below!
The Panelists were:
Lisa Bourque Bearskin, RN, PhD, Thompson Rivers University (BC)
Lucinda Canty, RN, PhD, University of St. Joseph (CT)
Barbara Hatcher, PhD, MPH, RN, FAAN, Hatcher-DuBois-Odrick Group, LLC
Lucy Mkandawire-Valhmu, PhD, RN, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Daniel Suárez-Baquero, PhD, MSN, BSN, University of California San Francisco
Bukola Salami, RN, MN, PhD, University of Alberta
Jennifer Woo, PhD, CNM, WHNP, FACNM, Texas Woman’s University
The time ran short for addressing questions posted in the Q&A for the webinar, but we have shared the questions with the panelists, and future blog posts here will feature panelist responses to these questions!
Spontaneous feedback was posted in the “chat” throughout the panel discussion – all expressing deep appreciation to each of the panelists for their riveting presentations. Toward the end of the webinar, additional comments reflect the whole of the experience for those attending:
Such an amazing discussion!
Raising my hands to all of you.
Thank you! Love from the Philippines!
Thank you all so much for such a fruitful presentation.
What a wealth of knowledge and sharing, SO grateful
WOW! I can’t wait to share this with my faculty team
Can we have a part 2? This has been emotional and insightful and empowering. Thank you to each speaker and organizers and hosts
This panel was so energizing and inspiring! Thank you all!!
Thank you to the speakers for opening hearts and minds
Thank you for the eloquence with which you shared!!!!
Thank you for such an inspiring event. I am hopeful for the future of nursing
Guest Contributor: Lydia D. Rotondo, DNP, RN, CNS, FNAP
The practice doctorate in nursing developed in response to an increasingly complex healthcare landscape that requires additional competencies for 21st century advanced nursing practice. Complementing traditional graduate (MS) specialty curricula, the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) program of study incorporates additional curricular content in the areas originally detailed in the 2006 DNP Essential domains (now integrated into AACN’s 2021 Essentials). DNP students complete a summative scholarly practice inquiry project that is theoretically-guided and evidence-based, demonstrating synthesis and application of the tools of clinical scholarship learned throughout the DNP program.
Particularly relevant to the design of DNP projects is the critical importance of context and the application (or adaptation) of best evidence (when available) to specific practice settings or specific populations. As context experts DNPs utilize systems thinking to design, implement, and evaluate interventions within complex adaptive systems revealing new understandings about health care delivery, the healthcare experience, and the role of DNPs as change agents and clinical scholars.
Fifteen years after the release of the DNP Essentials, appropriate focus is now on evaluating the impact of DNP practice on healthcare systems and health outcomes. As a practice discipline, however, there remains little attention by nursing academe regarding the potential impact of the practice doctorate on the discipline of nursing. In other words, how will the growing cadre of DNP-prepared nurses be leveraged to advance the discipline? In today’s interdependent, knowledge–based, digital world, how will advancing the discipline be defined and measured in the coming decades? What additional scholarly tools and curricular content will DNP students need to begin to answer these questions?
As doctoral-prepared nurses, DNPs share stewardship with other doctoral-prepared nursing colleagues to generate disciplinary knowledge. Yet, discussion about DNPs as knowledge producers and theory innovators remains largely unexplored. Scholarly treatment of knowledge generation in nursing practice is not a new phenomenon and has, in fact, been posited and published by several nursing theorists for decades. However, the introduction of the latest iteration of the practice doctorate in nursing, now in its second decade, with more than 36,000 enrolled in DNP programs and close to 8,000 graduates, has not sparked interest among leaders in DNP education to approach practice epistemology from the DNP lens.
Moreover, with a de-emphasis on philosophy of science and theory and stronger attention to evidence-base practice in DNP curricula, DNP programs as currently designed may lack sufficient educational grounding to engage in practice theory development. This further impedes the opportunity for scholarly discourse on practice knowledge production specifically and doctoral roles in nursing knowledge generation more broadly. While the promotion of evidence-based practice among all health professionals is useful to reduce clinical variation in care, there remains nascent opportunity for DNPs to consider how their scholarly work can produce practice-based evidence- knowledge that both improves care outcomes for individuals and populations and illuminates the contributions of nurses to healthcare.
In 2019, we developed a theory and conceptual foundations for clinical scholarship course at the University of Rochester School of Nursing in which students explore the historical and philosophical roots of the practice doctorate in nursing and nursing as a practice discipline. Our early efforts were inspired by Dr. Pamela Reed, Professor at the University of Arizona College of Nursing, whose considerable contributions in the area of practice epistemology provided a framework for course development. In an early course assignment, students are asked to create a concept map using the four nursing metaparadigm concepts to describe their philosophy of nursing. Students present their maps in class which encourages rich discussion about the nature of nursing knowledge related to their role in health care and health/wellness promotion. What is particularly striking is that for many students, this course is their first exposure to nursing’s theoretical grounding and opportunity to reflect on their professional practice from a disciplinary perspective. Several DNP student exemplars from the spring 2021 semester are included below with permission.
Exemplar 1 – Sarah Dunstan, University of Rochester School of Nursing DNP student
Circumnavigating and persevering through life’s most challenging roadblocks, the nurse dutifully guides the most weary and vulnerable of travelers towards safety and solace, both physically and emotionally. Committing to the vision of “Ever Better” and the pursuit of optimal patient wellness, nurse leaders are tasked with the responsibility of advancing the field and creating the new standards of care for the future.
As depicted above, my philosophy of nursing is best explained in the context of a journey. The person, or patient, is represented as a vehicle. Similar to vehicles, each patient is a unique make and model, some with more miles or more baggage than others. The nurse navigating the vehicle must carefully consider these differences and individual patient needs when mapping out the patients’ journey to health. The map, or environment, is laden with roadblocks or barriers to optimal wellness. The barriers may be geographical, financial, cultural, psychological, or physical. Whether few or many, these roadblocks may delay or completely inhibit the patient from reaching their health care goals. The metaparadigm concept of nursing describes the individual caregiver at the bedside that assists the patient around and through these various states of illness in order to reach the ultimate destination of optimal wellness. The destination “Health” is malleable and ever evolving, as depicted with multiple possible end points marked on the map. Health is defined by and dependent on the individual patient and their own informed healthcare goals, as optimal wellness is not always defined as the absence of disease.
The map is in the hands of the DNP-prepared nursing scholar. As a leader and nursing expert in the field, the DNP is the visionary change agent tasked with closing the practice-theory gap at the bedside in the clinical setting. DNPs are the cartographers for the future of nursing, responsible for defining clinical scholarship in nursing, creating, upholding, and disseminating the proposed standards of the discipline.
Exemplar 2 – Christine Boerman, University of Rochester School of Nursing DNP student
My nursing theory and paradigm is composed of many moving parts that work interchangeably and without each of these elements working together, the discipline of nursing would not be complete. My nursing theory is illustrated via the gears that work together in order to create the full working “maChinne” of nursing discipline.
Exemplar 3 – Christina D’Agostino, University of Rochester School of Nursing DNP Student
The figures included within the map are all intended to mirror constellations within that sky, represent the person, the environment and one’s health. Centered at the bottom of the map, shining its beacon of light on the sky is nursing, represented by two hands which provide the foundation. Nursing is a global role. As people around the globe all look up to the same night sky, all people share the benefits of the nursing domain.
My personal philosophy of nursing is a holistic approach of providing culturally-sensitive care for individuals, regardless of locality or ethnicity while being mindful of the interconnectedness that involves the person, environment, and one’s health as the recipient of that care.
Exemplar 4 – Victoria Mesko, University of Rochester School of Nursing DNP Student
My personal philosophy of nursing is: Caring for individuals with a holistic approach, striving for wellness within the community and the world. Along with all of the skills that nurses develop, what sets nurses apart is their caring nature. Nurses have an all-encompassing view of our patients’ mind, body, and spirit. Nurses see patients in the context of their environment and are able to propose treatments that will consider all of the influences on patient’s lives. Nurses take into account all of the meanings that “health” can have to a person, not just the absence of disease, but a sense of wellness even if they have disease. In my map, there is no one nursing domain that is more important than another, as they all have an influence on patient care. The interlocking circle of different hands represents nurses working to form relationships and connections between patients, the community and the environment across cultural lines.
Exemplar 5 – Kalin Warshof, University of Rochester School of Nursing DNP Student
My philosophy of the nursing discipline is the utilization of the art and science of nursing care, compassion, and practice interventions to enhance the health and well-bring of the person, within their individual environmental context, including social determinants, culture, and beliefs. The metaparadigm map depicts the person at the center of the diagram, with nursing as a discipline, nursing interventions and compassionate care contributing to the improvement of health and well-being of the person. This is evident by the upward arrow, with health and well-being above the person, portraying the upmost importance to the person and nursing. The background in light blue, labeled the environment, indicates that the person, nursing discipline, health, and well-being interpretation and improvement occurs within the context of the personal environment. My philosophy of the nursing discipline is consistent with the Doctor of Nursing Practice Essentials I objective focusing on the whole person and their interaction with the environment to improve health and well-being (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2006).
Exemplar 6 – Kara Mestnik, University of Rochester School of Nursing DNP Student
Individual nursing philosophy is shaped overtime by individual practice, and life experience. My philosophy has shifted over the past twenty years, I have gained vast clinical experience and growth in intrapersonal interaction and relationships. The term balance is often sought for and emphasized as an indicator of health and wellness, comparable to the concept of homeostasis. My personal philosophy of Nursing is the ability to navigate all facets of human life despite the magnitude of directional force that may attempt to imbalance ones mental, physical, and spiritual well-being. Refer to (figure 1) for metaparadigm map. Consider the patient the pivot at the center of the compass, with a multidirectional view of their own life and well-being, while the nurse is the hand that holds the compass. The hand holding the compass helps both align and balance the direction the patient is aiming to travel. The nurse becomes both the navigational guide and the stable hand that allows for balance to be achieved at any given period or direction in time. The hands holding the compass indicate a personal connection with the patient as well as an oversight into the larger picture in which patients may travel. The acquired achievement of balance despite a directional force is guided by the hands that allow for health and wellness optimization.
About Lydia Rotondo
Lydia Rotondo, DNP, RN, CNS, FNAP is the associate dean for education and student affairs and director of the doctor of nursing practice program at the University of Rochester School of Nursing. She received her DNP from Vanderbilt University, MSN from the University of Pennsylvania, and BSN from Georgetown University. Lydia is a 2018 AACN Leadership in Academic Nursing Fellow and has actively contributed to the national dialogue on DNP scholarship and curriculum development through presentations at AACN’s doctoral education conference and publications.
Jacqueline Fawcett Lisa Sundean JoAnn Mulready-Shick
Academic department structures and governance tend to reflect university–wide structures and governance that are typically characterized as hierarchical, competitive, and power-over/power as control. The decision to revise a department of nursing by-laws provided an opportunity to transition to adopt a more egalitarian structure with shared governance between the department faculty and the department and college administrators.
Consequently, during Academic Year (AY) 2017-2018, the faculty of a department of nursing agreed to a new governance structure that involved development of by-laws for the department. Three faculty members then agreed to serve on a committee to revise our department by-laws. The By-Laws Committee members first considered our previous traditional use of Robert’s Rules of Order for department meetings and recognized those rules as a patriarchal power-over/power as control structure. As we questioned assumptions and traditions, we determined that Robert’s Rules no longer served us and did not support our desire for a more progressive, egalitarian structure of group process and shared governance. We therefore suggested using the Peace and Power process .
The purpose of the Peace and Power process is to guide group process “in cooperative and peaceful ways, and in ways that challenge the status quo and lead to social and political change in the direction of equality and justice for all . . . . the process . . . also [is] . . . .a means of creating healthy group interactions and promoting health by reducing stress and distress created by hostile conflict” (Chinn & Falk-Rafael, 2015, p. 62). The theory of Peace and Power “provides a framework for individuals and groups to shape their actions and interactions to promote health and well being for the group and for each individual, using processes based on values of cooperation and inclusion of all points of view in making decisions and in addressing conflicts. Based on the processes . . . individuals and groups can make thoughtful choices about the ways they work together to promote healthy, growthful interactions and avoid harmful, damaging interactions” (Chinn, 2018).
Perhaps most important is that the Peace and Power process is a way to operationalize power-as-freedom, that is, freedom to knowingly participate in change (Barrett, 2010) instead of power-over/power as control. Thus, the emphasis is on the solidarity of our department learners (aka faculty, staff, and students) rather than power held over the group by any one individual or authoritative body.
Following successive drafts and revisions based on faculty feedback, the department by-laws were approved by the department faculty in Spring 2019 and were implemented in Fall 2019. The by-laws included the stipulation that department meetings would be conducted using the Peace and Power process. Faculty also recognized their need to engage in new learning about this innovative method .
The faculty agreed that the Peace and Power process reflects the shared values and commitments formed by the group. Specifically, the faculty agreed that the Peace and Power process is consistent with our department values (Integrity, Inclusion, Diversity, Transparency, Transformation, Resilience, Relationships, Accountability, Collaboration, Equity, and Excellence) and a department goal to implement the department by-laws. Noteworthy is that the department values are consistent with two of the university-wide values–transformation and engagement. The Peace and Power process also supports the initial implementation efforts within the department and the entire university to eliminate structural racism and to promote diversity and inclusion. Incidentally, the transition to Peace and Power process as a means to shared governance and a healthy work environment is supported by the recent release of the Future of Nursing Report 2020-2030: Charting a Path to Achieve Health Equity (National Academy of Medicine, 2021). Specifically, among the 54 sub-recommendations is an emphasis on improved nursologist well-being through healthy work environments that include structural, socio-emotional, justice, and policy foci.
During the first department meeting of Fall 2019, faculty were intentionally reminded of the new by-laws and the Peace and Power process by members of the By-Laws Committee. Implementing the Peace and Power process in the department involves rotating leadership of monthly department meetings. This means that the department chair does not chair each department meeting; instead, after a slow start in AY 19-20, by AY 20-21, a different faculty member volunteers to convene and lead each meeting. Furthermore, the department meetings operate within values-based decision-making and mutual agreement of best options by means of consensus building discussions during department meetings and anonymous online voting as needed, such as elections to committees and final decisions about curriculum and programs. Moving critical voting decisions to the anonymous online format extended over a short period of time, ensures that all voices are included and that votes are not potentially coerced by peer pressure.
During AY 2020-2021, the By-Laws Committee members engaged in a series of micro-learning sessions to raise awareness about the content and meaning of the by-laws, including a more thorough explanation of PEACE powers (Chinn, 2013). A Fall 2020 micro-leaning session focused on differences between discussions that could be characterized as diversity or divisiveness. This session was added to the meeting agenda and presented by the department chair. The Spring 2021 micro-learning sessions focused on familiarizing faculty more thoroughly with the content of and more fully operationalizing the Peace and Power process. One micro-learning session focused on the outcome of the Peace and Power process as “movement that is ever shifting to the direction of peace” (Chinn, 2013, p. 10), along with the meaning of the word, PEACE, which is the acronym for five powers:
Praxis—synchronous reflection and action to transform the world
Empowerment—growth of personal ability to enact one’s will in the context of love and respect for others
Awareness—growing knowledge of self and others
Cooperation—commitment to group solidarity and integrity
Evolvement–commitment to deliberate growth and change (Chinn 2013, p 10 ).
The PEACE powers are operationalized when values and commitments are formed by the group (i.e., the faculty), when department meeting leadership rotates among the faculty, and when values-based decision making and mutual agreement of best options occurs.
During the Spring 2021 semester, each department meeting concluded with a request for reflections. Examples of reflection prompts, which were meant to prompt reflections about the process of Peace and Power during department meetings, are:
Please share an appreciation for someone or something that has happened during this meeting today.
What could have been different in today’s meeting and how would future meetings be shaped?
Faculty were asked to place their answers/reflections in the zoom chat box (department meetings throughout the pandemic were held via zoom technology). Examples of responses are:
I appreciate the discussions today which were very civil and constructive.
I appreciate the discussions [of] awareness of individuals and their feelings.
I enjoy listening to others perspectives and thoughts.
I appreciate the open communication and problems solving about common challenges (e.g., email overload for everyone!)
The meeting today was a very good example of the Peace and Power Process, so thank you to everyone for your contributions to our dialogue.
Appreciate the positive communication and openness to hear all voices
Thank you to everyone for sharing their thoughts on this topic…a good question for us to ponder further is how do we operationalize self- care and meet our department goals?
The By-Laws Committee members recognize the ongoing nature of implementation of the structural change for the department. Accordingly, future plans are to create a standing agenda item with the intention to further sustain the Peace and Power process at the monthly meetings. Two specific future actions include additional micro-learning sessions and ending each department meeting with a reflective practice.
We gratefully acknowledge the excellent contributions of undergraduate nursology learner Stephen Miller (BS, December 2021) and PhD nursology learner Julianne Mazzawi (PhD, June 2021) to the micro-learning sessions.
Co-contributors with Nursology.net team member Jacqueline Fawcett
Lisa J. Sundean, PhD, MHA, RN is an Assistant Professor at Fairfield University and formerly at the University of Massachusetts Boston. She is Board Chair of the CT Center for Nursing Workforce, Board Member of the CT League for Nursing, a consultant for the Center to Champion Nursing in America, a national leader with the Nurses on Boards Coalition, and a Fellow in the New York Academy of Medicine. Her research and scholarship focus on nurses in board governance roles, health policy, and nursing workforce development. Dr. Sundean is a Daisy Foundation Award recipient for Extraordinary Nurses.
JoAnn Mulready-Shick, EdD, RN, CNE, ANEF, is a Clinical Professor in the Department of Nursing, UMass Boston, and a Nurse Scientist at the Boston VA Healthcare System. Her scholarship centers on nurse educator development, student success, and clinical education innovation.
Contributor: Rudolf Cymorr Kirby P. Martinez, Ph.D.
Philippine Children’s Medical Center (PCMC) is the largest and the national referral center for pediatric cases in the Philippines. I started my professional journey here as a staff nurse after I finished my MA in nursing, and soon after, I completed my Ph.D. I transitioned to academia. After eight years from the time I resigned as a staff nurse, I was appointed as the consultant nursologist of the hospital. This is the first time a nurse assumes a consultancy role in PCMC and the first time that the official designation is that of consultant nursologist. How it came about was serendipitous, to say the least. It all started during the pandemic when the inherent weakness of health care institutions, especially in a developing country like the Philippines, was exposed because of the pandemic’s burden. During this time, the value of nurses received the much-needed attention they deserve. Also, around this time, I realized the fragility of life and the uncertainty of things because of the pandemic. As I was looking for a way to help nurses working in the service sector, one of my mentees in graduate school mentioned that their hospital is currently creating initiatives for their nurses. This hospital was my former employer, PCMC.
I took the initiative to write a letter offering my expertise as a nursologist to the institution’s executive director, Dr. Julius Lecciones, whose office is taking the lead on creating this initiative for nurses. I wrote in the letter how a nursologist could benefit not only the nurses in the hospital but ultimately the children whose lives they are caring for. As a response to the letter, I was given an audience with the department managers, physicians, and some nurse supervisors. During the presentation, I focused on explaining what nursology is all about and proposed a framework for how the expertise of a nursologist could benefit the hospital and its community.
In the Philippine context, all people educated in nurses are called “nars” (nurse) regardless of where they practice. But most people would associate nurses with those who are working in the service sector as practitioners. (We do not have advanced practice in the Philippines at the moment) so all nurses working in the service sector are “the nurses” in the eyes of the general population. There is a prevailing belief that the penultimate role and function of a nurse in the hospital setting, not academe or research, that to work in the hospital is their reason for being. This is the reason why I deliberately choose “nursologist” to somehow bring into the consciousness of people that nursing is a professional discipline and its practice is not only confined within the four walls of the hospital. From there, I hope that the label we use for nurses will evolve into nursology and its different expressions. I have the same appreciation of nursology similar to some of the contributors from nursology.net, that is it “A name for discipline of nursing, a body of knowledge, a research methodology, and a practice methodology about and for phenomena of concern to nurses” (see “An Invitation to Dialogue about Disciplinary Terms. I am also heavily influenced by Rogerian Science of Unitary Human Beings and the Theory of Nursing as Caring by Boykin & Schoenhoffer: A caring practice means that the knowledge of nursing is expressed by the nurse with the intent to be caring, and their expressions are appreciated by the other person as caring actions. In addition, I believe that nursology is grounded in the fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing, first identified by Barbara Carper in 1978.
Launching the Nursology Initiative
During the initial talk on the establishment of the Nursology Initiative, I gave a presentation and emphasized in it the unique perspective that a nursologist could bring to the table in terms of nursing research, practice innovation, and creating a center for caring practice. After the presentation, they accepted the framework and further suggested that as part of the consultancy, I will also be a part of the institution’s multi-sector governance council (MSGC), where my expertise as a nursologist would provide a unique perspective on various issues tackled within the board.
Besides being part of the MSGC, my role as a consultancy nursologist is to assist the institution by providing insights, technical inputs, and expertise grounded on nursology on the following matters:
Development of a nursing research unit that focuses on human-health research and EBP grounded on nursology
Practice innovation with an emphasis on palliative care and caring science
Creation of a Center for Caring Practice
I also give short lectures on nursology and other nursing-related topics when needed. I was also given a permanent column for their newsletter aptly called “The Nursologist Corner,” where I share my opinion on issues concerning nursing, health, and wellness sent to me by various members of the community
This was the initial nature of my engagement with the institution as we are continuously exploring the nature of this partnership since this is the first of its kind in the Philippines. The PCMC Nursology Initiative Program is initially under the Executive Director’s Office, and the consultant nursologist liaise directly with the executive director.
During the contract signing, I gave a message to the administrators and nurse managers present, emphasizing that although society needs the expertise of nurses as clinicians, it is not the end-of-it of nursing. There is more to nursing than bedside practice. It is not the clinical skill that makes a nurse a nurse; it is our unique perspective and appreciation of things grounded in our disciplinary body of knowledge. I believe that one of the essential roles of a nursologist in a hospital is the empowerment of nurses and, with it, the advancement of their clinical practice. Nursologists help in creating systems and processes that allow for the empowerment of nurses to happen.
For so long, nurses in the Philippines are seen as second-class health care providers, merely skilled technicians, simply because it seems that some nurses have forgotten their unique disciplinary perspectives and are operating in a system that is not grounded in nursing. As I envision, a nursologist could help nurses remember who they are and the unique perspective they could offer.
An initiative such as the consultant nursologist might offer another model for bridging the gap between the science that is nursing and the art by which it is practiced in the clinical setting.
About Rudolf Cymorr Kirby P. Martinez, Ph.D
Rudolf Cymorr Kirby P. Martinez, Ph.D., is currently the consultant nursologist of Philippine Children’s Medical Center and is a full-time Professor at San Beda University College of Nursing. He also teaches part-time at the graduate school program of Arellano University, Florentino Cayco Memorial School Graduate School of Nursing, and Holy Angels University – School of Nursing and Allied Medical Science. He is an advocate of nursology, caring science, and palliative care and consider himself a scholar of Rogerian Science of Unitary Human Being. His current advocacy includes the decolonization of nursing education through the integration of caring science and indigenous culture and folkloric practices into the nursing curricula.
Culture shock is a state where people experience the stages of honeymoon, frustration, adaptation and acceptance. It is an intense feeling that follows the grief process. I had first-hand experience with all these stages of culture shock when I came to the land of opportunities, the United States of America, in 2012. I started my first job as a bedside Registered Nurse. It felt like I had accomplished the purpose of my life by getting a job at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Yale seemed like a place in heaven. It was beautiful to see that people could order food over the phone and a beautiful tray with fancy food items arrive at the bedside within a few minutes. Nurses only had four to five patients instead of the thirty that I had cared for earlier in my career. Patients had call bells and people responded to those bells. There were computers, scanners, medication dispensing machines and robots to deliver supplies. I was in the honeymoon phase.
But then came frustration as food items were thrown away if patients did not like them. Computers took away my time to be with my patients. The machines, robots, and technology had turned people into objects. I barely had time to know my patients or colleagues on a personal level. But I adapted and accepted by learning to fit into the situation. I learned that all this was crucial for patient safety, evidence-based practice, patient satisfaction scores and reimbursements.
After 8 years, I relived the stages of culture shock while learning in-depth about nursing theories in my doctorate program and educating nursing students on nursing theories at the same time. Nursing theories fascinated me and sparked my interest to learn more about the focus and identity of nursing discipline. Learning new concepts, making connections, discussing with nurse educators and colleagues, listening to some of the theorists themselves send me into the honeymoon phase once again.
I was determined to start my clinical day with the students by discussing a nursing theory. With all enthusiasm, I showed up at 6.45 am to meet my students and talk about nursing theories starting with Florence Nightingales’ framework and Watson’s Caring theory before we see our patients. Then once again, I experienced the frustration phase as students were disinterested, inattentive, unpassionate, and incurious which was exactly the opposite of what I was prepared for. I stopped the talk in the middle and let them start their routine patient assessments. I was deeply saddened by reliving the experience as I knew that I would have to adapt and accept the reality just like I did a few years back.
But this time, instead of accepting, I felt challenged to change the norm. Students viewed the content of nursing theories as dry, complicated to understand, of no practical use, and grade-lowering. The next week, I planned to discuss Neumann’s System Model with the vision that students can feel and experience the essence of the theory and view clients as an open system responding to various stressors in the environment. Instead of theory, I started our discussion with the theorist, Betty Neumann. We discussed how she grew up on a farm and took care of her sick father who died at the age of 36, which created her passion for nursing. Her mother was a devoted self-taught midwife. We talked about her academic, professional, and volunteer work. I shared images and videos depicting her life and vision. Then we discussed her vision of creating the nursing theory and related concepts of the theory.
Students were completely engaged, asked questions, and seemed ready to minimize the theory-practice gap. In the post- clinical conference that day, students were able to identify intra, inter and extra-personal stressors for their clients. They also identified the interventions they performed or planned to perform at primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention. They developed a deeper connection to the theorist, theory, clients and themselves. They identified who they are in relation to the focus of nursing discipline. After that week, we continued discussing a theorist and a nursing theory each week before clinical and each student-patient interaction is now guided by the concepts of that theory. Every week, we now look forward to our discussion of nursing theories and viewing people from different perspectives to provide competent and compassionate nursing care
I invite all the nursing students, nurse educators, nurse scholars, and nurse researchers to prevent nursing theories from following the similar pattern of stages of culture shock and grief. Instead of frustration, anger, denial, adaptation, and acceptance, our collaborative efforts can lead to a focused nursing discipline in which every nurse is changing lives by using the strong foundational pillars of nursing theories.
About Aisha Chahal
Aisha Chahal, MSN, CMSRN, is a doctoral nursing student in the Online Nursing Education EdD program at Teachers College, Columbia University. Aisha has completed her Masters of Science in Nursing Education in 2019. She is a clinical instructor at Western Connecticut State University. She has have 10 years of clinical experience in medical-surgical nursing. Her passion is exploring effective teaching-learning strategies to educate nursing students on Transcultural Nursing.
He lounged in the chair, laptop nestled in his lap. “Here, look at this,” he waived toward his screen.
I bent over, squinting, and saw a colorful graph of lines that reminded me of a holiday decoration. “It’s a stochastic model of cellular growth….” He went on to mention the conditions that were being modeled, and I marveled at how these predictions were created.
He turned to face me. “You know, the problem with social sciences (and nursing) is it’s too imprecise. You can’t replicate the studies and find the same results. The conclusions tend to way over-estimate the sample from which the data are drawn. Your theories don’t really reflect science.”
I studied his face and tried to determine whether he was serious. He knew my work and was aware of my approach to theory as a conduit to build science and expand knowledge. I am steeped in the Continental philosophy of human science; I believe in the Truth, but also with humans living different realities and how our personal narratives intersect to create the political. I believe that language not only reflects reality, it creates it. I subscribe to the notion that discourse is important to deconstruct as power relations (hegemonies) embedded in them are often unnoticed without such analysis.
Perhaps I was taking the conversation too seriously, but such science as this young man described and the data science paradigm are oozing – flooding really – into crevices of thought and science at a pace that makes me queasy. The battle of the empirical way of knowing overshadowing other ways of knowing (Chinn & Kramer, 2018) is amplified in the call to harness the seemingly infinite data collected daily that is supposed to tell us something of the human condition. What are these data trying to tell us? Patterns may be revealed without hypotheses. Theories were unnecessary for machine learning as one statistician told me, “You use machine learning when you don’t know what you’re going to find.”
This seems heretical for a theorist. I wanted to sell theory even harder.
In automatic cognitive reactions, I convey to those around me how important theory is — that the use of theory can inform, organize, and enlighten. I thought of Sarah Szanton and Jessica Gill’s (2010) work, Society-to-Cells Resilience Theory – could it be applied to stochastic methods? I thought of other times when I “sold” theory:
One of my colleagues asked for input on a community engagement proposal in the context of substance use and stigma within rural communities. I steered her to the Rural Nursing Theory ofWinters and Lee (2018) and their remarkable understanding of concepts unique to rural dwellers, such as insider/outsider, the meaning of work, and so forth.
Teaching advanced theory with enrollment from other healthcare professions, including pharmacy. I boasted about nursing’s rich theoretical foundations and how nursing can inform other disciplines in myriad ways. I applaud the student when she finds a singular concept analysis within her discipline.
But then, I give pause. With recent discussions surrounding racial and ethnic disparities, and decolonizing nursing theory, I question whether I am “selling theory” with a bit too much enthusiasm. I think of all the other Truths out there based on personal experience, which is a microcosm of the political. I think of the mix of what is current politically in juxtaposition with theory, and how the tight weave of beliefs leaves me looking for solid answers and coming up empty at times.
Without reflectivity and critical appraisals of what we believe – and try to sell – we are guilty of stagnation. We are guilty of ignorant exclusion. Now, with calls to examine our fundamental assumptions framed within privilege, do we “sell theory” with the same enthusiasm? I’m uncertain, but certain of caveats. We need to acknowledge the knowledge of other theoretical possibilities we haven’t addressed. We can accept “not knowing what we don’t know,” and with just as much enthusiasm explore our ignorance. We can honor those whose work has moved us forward, and move out of the way, or ask for a place alongside, of those who are informed in new ways or in ways that we didn’t listen to before. We must be committed to inclusion and diversity of thought, of the personal as political. As theorists, we are motivated to refine, refresh, extend, edit, delete, and discount. Only when we stop these activities, only when we think “we’re done,” will we be guilty of over-selling theory.
With a sigh, I look over again at the young man with his stochastic graphs and models. He’s been pushing buttons on his laptop, growing his models, as I have been reflecting on theory’s role in nursing. I kiss him, my son, on the cheek, and say with certainty, “We both have a lot to learn.”
Chinn, P. & Kramer, M. (2018). Knowledge development in nursing: Theory and process (10th ed.). Mosby, Inc.
Pender, N. J., Murdaugh, C. L., & Parsons, M. A. (2011). Health Promotion in Nursing Practice (6th Edition). Pearson.
Szanton, S. L., & Gill, J. M. (2010). Facilitating resilience using a society-to-cells framework: a theory of nursing essentials applied to research and practice. Advances in Nursing Science, 33(4), 329-343.
Winters, C. & Lee, H. J. (Eds.). (2018). Rural nursing: Concepts, theory and practice. (5th ed.). Springer Publishing Company.
Health is a central concept in most if not all versions of the metaparadigm of nursology (Fawcett, 2019). I have defined health as “human processes of living and dying” (Fawcett & DeSanto-Madeya, 2013, p. 6) and conceptualize health as inclusive of wellness, illness, and disease within that process. I deliberately separated wellness from illness and disease when I realized many years ago that the term, promotion of health, could mean that nursologists’ activities were directed toward promotion of illness and disease as well as wellness, rather than indicating that nursologists’ activities are directed toward promoting wellness and preventing illness and disease.
However, I recently realized that my conceptualization of health is Euro-centric and reflects my privilege as a white, Anglo-Saxon nursologist (Chinn, 2020). Accordingly, when I had the honor of speaking virtually with faculty and graduate program learners at St. Mary’s College Graduate School of Nursing in Kurume, Japan, in February 2021, I invited the learners to share their thoughts about health by responding to three questions. The questions and their responses constitute most of the remainder of this blog.
• The first question is: What is your definition of health?
• Inasmuch as the nursology curriculum at St. Mary’s College School of Nursing is based on the Roy Adaptation Model (RAM), I then asked this question: To what extent is your definition of health consistent with the Roy Adaptation Model definition of health, which is: “A state and process of being and becoming an integrated and whole human being” (Roy, 2009, p. 48).
• Finally, I asked: How does your definition of health affect what you think and do as a nursologist?
GRADUATE PROGRAM LEARNER TAKAKO TANAKA’S THOUGHTS ARE:
I define health as a feeling of harmony between body, mind, and living in society. Even if people have a disease or disability, they can be considered healthy if they feel that they are able to do what they want to do, while coping with their environment. My definition of health is similar to that of the RAM, in that human health in the RAM is not just a high or low level of health. Instead, it is about growth and development as we interact with our environment. Output behavior, when healthy, is positive adaptive behavior. According to the RAM, if energy is not spent on maladaptive coping, this energy can promote healing and enhance health, even in states of illness. I also believe that if people have a lifestyle disease, for example, and can controls the disease by going to the hospital and taking appropriate medication to stabilize the disease, and are able to live as members of society, then they are healthy. My definition of health has been informed by my work in public health nursing, as I learned to always value the concept of health promotion. Individually and collectively, I want to help people understand their health problems and support them to achieve independence and self-determination on their own, which will likely lead to illness prevention. Furthermore, I believe that it is essential to create an environment that supports health.
GRADUATE PROGRAM LEARNER MIHO YOSHIOKA’S THOUGHTS ARE:
I define health as a state in which subjective well-being and objective health indicators are in marvelous harmony. Subjective well-being differs depending on the culture, customs, and environmental values of each individual; and even if they have a disease or handicap, I think that they are in health if they feel well-being within themselves. However, I ask if there is a possibility of being a detriment to themselves, such as leaving the illness to their own discretion, are they truly healthy? Therefore, I dare to consider that a state in which these conflicting things are in marvelous harmony can be called health. The RAM emphasis on an interaction between the person and the environment is consistent with my idea of subjective well-being. The RAM emphasizes that health behaviors based on individual values are adaptive and can never be measured by the values of others, which helps me to understand that whether people consider themselves healthy is a complete affirmation of their diverse values. However, the RAM contention that health behaviors cannot be measured is not consistent with the inclusion of objective aspects of health in my definition. In recent years, people’s lifestyles and values have changed, and subjective well-being, an aspect of my definition of health, has also diversified. The practice of providing sensitive care for the different needs of each individual requires a holistic understanding of that individual. A nursologist is the professional who is closest to the client. By paying attention to and engaging with the client, I think that we can become aware of the needs of that person and provide individualized nursology that protects human consideration and dignity. I also think that nursology, which requires being close to the client, is important in terms of developing trust and respect for their subjective well-being. Moreover, I think that nursology practice is caring for others, which is essential for curing and healing. Therefore, the attitude of facing each individual, the full use of professional knowledge and experience with dignity to maintain and improve well-being, and cooperation with clients while caring for them, are all affected by my definition of health and by our thinking and acting as a nursologist.
GRADUATE PROGRAM LEARNER MASUMI OKA’S THOUGHTS ARE:
I define health as a state of understanding and accepting of one’s condition, and also a quest for health itself. Although the World Health Organization (1948) defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,” I regard health as the way of understanding the state of experiencing a disease or disability, accepting one’s response to the disease or disability, and trying to become satisfied and fulfilled despite the disease or disability. My definition also incorporates a holistic perspective that includes the meaning of healing, and I think that it is also a love of one’s existence, including existence with others. There are subjective and objective aspects to health, but factors such as ideals, goals, and prejudices toward health are the driving force behind the quest for health. I believe that human beings are creatures that constantly seek “health” and have the power to control their way of life. In other words, the act of pursuing “health” itself becomes human empowerment, and I think that it also affects one’s quality of life. My definition of health has been greatly influenced by the RAM definition of health. Being and becoming a whole and integrated human being can be interpreted as a quest for health, so that process is health itself. The RAM considers health from the perspective of human goals and the significance of existence, and lack of integration is said to denote inadequate health. The facilitation of the process of integration is seen as care for my idea of a “quest for health” and is consistent with all human care required of nursologists. My definition of health has a great influence on my thinking and behavior as a nursologist. I believe that supporting the acceptance of people with a disease or disability and considering together with them is caring for their “quest for health.” Quality of life changes significantly depending on how disease or disorder is perceived and understood. As a nursologist, I think that by being involved in the process of accepting illness and disability and supporting people’s ability to satisfy themselves, they can accept and love their existence. As a nursologist, I would like to continue to study and learn the potential “investigative power of health” of human beings and contribute to the development of the science of nursology in the future.
GRADUATE PROGRAM LEARNER TATSUNARI HARA’S THOUGHTS ARE:
My definition of health has two aspects: it is the situation in which people think of their condition as being “good” despite any physical malady they might have, and it is also the process they are going through in changing or adapting to their condition to become “better” in terms of their own understanding of the word. My definition of health has been greatly influenced by the RAM, as I learned nursology through the RAM. My definition of health is, however, more abstract than that of the RAM, as my definition emphasizes the largely subjective nature of health. My definition of health has influenced by thoughts and actions. Thus, I understand that nursologists strive to establish a caring connection to patients by ascertaining what kind of state they think is good, their goals and abilities required to attain that state, how they perceive their current situation, and what their values are. Furthermore, as I work in rehabilitation nursology, I see many of the patients leave the hospital with remaining disabilities to go on with their lives. Therefore, we nursologists may be required to change our ideas about health so that we can work together with the patients while thinking about how to establish health in their lives, and encourage any necessary changes they may need to make.
GRADUATE PROGRAM LEARNER MIHO ISHIBASHI’S THOUGHTS ARE:
I think that health is not a concept that opposes illness, but a process in which a person interacts with the environment as a human being and tries to become a person looking positively toward their hopes and wishes. Health in the RAM is an integrated overall condition or process. Nursologists say that by promoting adaptation, they contribute to human health, quality of life, and dignified death. I think that for people to be the people they are, nursologists have to understand the hopes and wishes of what the people want to be and do, as well as understand and support them physically, mentally, and socially. I believe it is necessary to understand the environment surrounding a person, think about the influences that affect their health, and consider how to manage these aspects to make people healthy. I think it is necessary to act as a nursologist to understand people’s hopes and wishes people and to help them attain these hopes and wishes.
GRADUATE PROGRAM LEARNER YUKIE NAKANISHI’S THOUGHTS ARE:
I think of health as being familiar with one’s self, having the ability to deal with problems, and having the ability to make decisions. The notion of health in the RAM as a state of integration is consistent with my thoughts about health. Until I entered graduate school, I was convinced that “health” was not having any illnesses or disability. However, even if one has an illness or a disability, I have now come to think that true health is the ability to face oneself, accept what one has become, and move forward toward the future. While studying the RAM and bioethics, I have learned it is important to learn that “person” equals “life”, and that it is equally important to think about a person’s “purpose of life” and “meaning of life” while practicing nursology. Nursologists are practitioners of caring, so I have realized that it may be inadequate to not understand what health is. In the future, I would like to continue learning so I can augment my humanity and human power, learn more about the attitudes necessary for caring, and put them to practical use.
I was remiss in not having invited the St. Mary’s College Graduate School of Nursing faculty and learners to share the word each uses for health. Therefore, I do not know whether their responses reflect a Euro-centric or Japanese meaning for the word.
When I sent a draft of this blog to Eric Fortin, of the St. Mary’s College School of Nursing faculty, he replied with his interpretation of the Japanese characters for health. I am, therefore, indebted to Mr. Fortin (personal communication, April 26, 2021), who wrote “健 means ‘humans build,’ and ‘康’ means “breathing space, . , , probably implying the lack of obstruction or disease. So, ‘humans building breathing space’ implies being healthy.”
Today, more than twenty years after nursing was incorporated into the Chilean Health Code in 1997 as an autonomous profession, one begins to see how nurses empower themselves defending their rights at the institutional, social and political level. This is seen through events such as the establishment of the National Nursing Directorate at the Ministry of Health and the role that nursing has had in the Covid-19 pandemic. Nurses are raising their voices. In the political sphere, nurses are campaigning as representativeness to draft the new Chilean Constitution, defending/advocating care as a constitutional right and guarding professional autonomy. Another important example of nursing empowerment is the growing generation/development of nursing scientific associations. These organizations seek to socialize what nurses do, the ongoing research in different areas of care and the development of profession itself. Currently, there are more 40 scientific nursing societies in the country.
In 2005, through the Health Authority Law 19,937, self-managed hospitals were established, which brought with them an important change in their administrative organization. It implied that hospitals in their structure should consider the Medical Directorate and the Subdirectorate of care management, both with direct dependence of the hospital management. Historically, nursing had depended on the medical directorates. In this context, the nursing professional association of the time and, the scientific societies (in that period there were no more than ten) defended before the authority of the Ministry of Health and the Comptroller General of the Republic, that by then nursing was the only profession that in its definition evidenced care management as a component of its role. As a result of these negotiations in 2007, by means of the General Administrative Norm No. 19 of the Ministry of Health, it recognized the nursing profession as the most suitable for implementing the care management model in self-managed hospitals.
In this context, “Nursing Care Management” was defined as the professional practice of the nurse based on the nursing discipline, the science of caring (based on Watson’s philosophy and theory), understanding the exercise of the profession as the application of professional judgment in planning, organization, motivation and control of the provision of timely, safe, comprehensive care that ensures continuity of care and is based on the institution’s strategic policies and guidelines. This achievement was constituted a demonstration of empowerment of the nurses of the decade.
However, even when the definition indicated that “care management” was based on the science of caring, the care provided to people was mainly focused on the biomedical model. The National Directorate of Nursing: it is specified through Exempt Resolution No. 1443, on August 20, 2019, during the mandate of the Minister of Health Jaime Mañalich who formalized the appointment of the National Director of Nursing. Being a milestone for the profession, providing from the central level, support to direct and guide the care of people, develop the nursing structure for the health sector, ensure that the nursing care management sub-directorates are not only considered in in-hospital care, but also in primary care.
In parallel, there have been other relevant events in the country, which show the awakening of nurses as a professional group. An example has been the number of nurses who present themselves to the process of electing representatives to the constituent assembly, in defense of care as a constitutional right, as well as the defense of the autonomy of the profession and the rights of nurses.
Another event that has led to the empowerment of nurses has been the Covid-19 Pandemic, which has resulted in the defense of the right of profession, the union of the group to be in the spaces where decisions are made. Likewise, the growth of scientific Societies that bring together nurses for a common purpose, whether it is around the care of people, such as the defense of the rights of the profession (see the list of Scientific Societies below).
The immunization of the population through the vaccine for Covid-19, means another instance in which the nurses raised their voices to defend the vaccination process as a historical nurse’ s responsibility. To respond to the vaccination demands, other healthcare professionals were called by the authorities as volunteer. This led, the nurses defended before the authorities, that although the voluntary participation of other professionals in vaccination is recognized, the vaccination programmeshould be under the supervision of the nursing staff only. Highlighting that, vaccination does not only imply the act of inoculating the vaccine, but an entire process of organization, administration, register and following up.
One of the last events that brings together nurses as an empowered group is the call that the National Director of Nursing makes to Scientific Societies to be part of a Technical Working Table, with the purpose of generating strategic collaboration links in for the development of protocols for the management of care and research in the discipline of Care.
Agrupación de enfermeras holísticas de Chile (AEHCh)
Agrupación de enfermeras y enfermeros ecologistas
Agrupación de enfermeros perioperatorios (AGEPCH)
Asociación chilena de enfermería en estomas heridas y/o continencias (ACCHIEHC)
Asociación chilena de enfermeros educadores en diabetes (ACHIENED)
Capítulo de enfermería de la Sociedad Médica de Cuidados paliativos
Capítulo de enfermería de SOCHIQUEM
División de enfermería intensiva de la sociedad chilena de medicina intensiva (SOCHIMI)
Federación Latinoamericana Esterilización FELACEH
Fundación de enfermería Gestión del Cuidado
Fundación latinoamericana de enfermería en cuidado humanizado (FLECH)
Sociedad de Enfermera Latinoamericana en Heridas (SELH)
Red Nacional EBE Chile
Red Chilena de Enfermería en Lactancia Materna (REDCHIELM)
Red Chilena de Enfermeros En Odontología (RECHIENFOD)
Red de Enfermería en Informática Chile
Red Chilena de Gestión del Cuidado REDGECU
Red de Enfermería en Salud del Adulto Mayor- Chile (REDESAM)
Red Chilena de Historia de la Enfermería
Red en Salud Ocupacional (RedENSO Chile)
Red iberoamericana de investigación en educación en enfermería-RIIEE Chile
Red Internacional de Enfermería en Cuidados Paliativos – Chile (RienCupa)
Red internacional de enfermería quirúrgica -RedIEnQu Chile
Sociedad Chilena de Enfermería en Salud Ocupacional (SOCHENSO)
Sociedad chilena de enfermeras de salud escolar (SOCHIESE)
Sociedad Cientíca chilena de enfermeras del niño y adolescente (SOCHENA)
Sociedad Chilena de Enfermería en Cardiología y Cirugía Cardiovascular (SOCHICAR)
Sociedad Chilena de Enfermería en Donación, Procuramiento y Trasplante (SOCHIENFDPT)
Sociedad Chilena de Enfermería Oncológica (SEOC)
Sociedad científica de enfermería comunitaria y familiar (SOCHIENFA)
Sociedad chilena de enfermeras comunitarias (SOCHIENCO)
Sociedad Chilena de Enfermería Prehospitalaria, Agrupación Científico-Técnica. (SOCCHIENPRE)
Sociedad chilena de prevención y control de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud, (SChIAAS)
Sociedad Chilena de Enfermeras de Pabellones Quirúrgicos y Esterilización
Sociedad Chilena de Terapia de Infusión (SOCHITEIN)
Sociedad científica de atención temprana, rehabilitación e inclusión
Sociedad Científica Docente Estudiantil de Enfermería UACh Pto Montt (SOCIDENF)
Sociedad de enfermeras de diálisis y trasplante renal (SENFERDIALT)
Sociedad Chilena de Enfermería Geronto-Geriátrica
Sociedad de Enfermeras Dermoestéticas (SOCHIEDE)
Sociedad de Profesionales en Esterilización de Chile
Sociedad Chilena de Simulación Clínica (SOCHISIM
About Luz Galdames
Luz Galdames Cabrera Ph.D. in Nursing, Mg. Instructional Design, Nurse-Midwife, Research Professor, School of Nursing, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Mayor. Researcher in project “Development and validation of the prototype dressing with copper nanoformulation for the treatment of infected chronic wounds, Universidad Mayor, Project ID18I10085 Funded by the Fund for the Promotion of Scientific and Technological Development FONDEF 2018-2020. Director of the Nursing Specialization Program in Adult Oncology at the Universidad Mayor. Member of the International Center for Nursing Research CIIENF of the Chilean Association of Nursing Education. Coordinator of the international Care Management Network. Founder and President of the Chilean Network of Care Management Last publication Galdames l., Enders B., Pavez A. Self-regulation, Autonomy and Identity of Nursing as a profession. Science and Nursing Magazine. 2019 24 (4). Doctoral thesis Care Management: Understanding the Meanings of the Social Role and Professional Autonomy of the Nurse in Chile. Funded by the Vice-rectory for Research and Doctorate as a start-up project, Universidad Andrés Bello Chile 2014.
Contributors: Christina Nyirati Sharon Stout-Shaffer
At the time of the 2021 Virtual Nursing Theory Week, Christina Nyirati and Sharon Stour-Shaffer presented the baccalaureate curriculum they designed and now implement at Heritage University located on the Yakama Reservation in Washington State. This is the only session that was recorded during the conference; it represents the value of nursing knowledge in shaping the present and future of nursing as a discipline. The following is a brief description and a video of their presentation.
The first Heritage University BSN Program Outcome reads “The Graduate of the Heritage University BSN Program explains how nursing’s fundamental patterns of knowing –personal, aesthetic, ethical, empirical and emancipatory –contribute to understanding the complexity of nursing care in the treatment of human response”.
Carper’s (1978) Fundamental Patterns of Knowing in Nursing is the foundation of the BSN Program. Freshmen study discrete courses in each of Carper’s fundamental patterns: personal, aesthetic, ethical, and empirical knowing. The Personal Knowing course is founded on personal knowing as a precondition for nursing care. Students practice various methods of reflection to develop personal knowing in every moment of nursing care. The Aesthetics of Nursing course is grounded in assumptions from Nightingale’s theory of nursing arts and aesthetics as a fundamental pattern of knowing in nursing. An experiential course, based in the principles of performing arts, the focus is on the act of care; Students explore and apply dramatic arts foundational to holistic nursing care competencies. The Ethical Knowing course emphasizes the practice of ethical comportment in nursing care. The Empirical Knowing course introduces students to fundamental theories, concepts, evidence, and competencies pertaining to generation of nursing knowledge.
Senior year features the community as the unit of nursing care, and is founded on Chinn and Kramer’s (2019) emancipatory knowing in nursing. The Policy, Power & Politics of Nursing course focuses on the professional nurse role in taking responsibility for shaping social policy. The two Community Oriented Nursing Inquiry and Practice and the Community Based Participatory Research courses center on principles of socially just reflective action to overcome health inequities.
Faculty developed rubrics to evaluate how students integrate the fundamental patterns of knowing nursing into clinical practice. Students complete reflective writing assignments during clinical practice each semester from sophomore through senior year.
About the contributors:
Christina Nyirati, RN, PhD
Christina Nyirati is Professor of Nursing at Heritage University on the Yakama Nation Reservation in Washington, where she serves as the founding Director of the BSN Program. Dr. Nyirati came to Heritage from Ohio University and The Ohio State University, where she directed the Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) Programs. She practiced more than 30 years as an FNP in primary care of vulnerable young families in Appalachian Ohio, and worked to reduce dire neonatal and maternal outcomes. Dr. Nyirati challenges FNP educators to consider nursing knowledge as the essential component of the FNP program as the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) evolves and becomes requisite for entry into advanced practice. Now at Heritage Dr. Nyirati prepares nurses in an innovative undergraduate curriculum faithful to the epistemic foundations of nursing. Two cohorts have graduated from the Heritage BSN Program. They openly proclaim and use their powerful nursing knowledge to correct inequities in their communities.
Sharon Stout-Shaffer, PhD, RN
Sharon Stout-Shaffer, PhD, RN, Professor Emerita, Capital University, Columbus, Ohio; Adjunct Faculty, Heritage University, Toppenish, Washington; Nursing Education Specialist, S4Netquest, Columbus, Ohio. Sharon has over 30 years of experience in educational administration and teaching in both hospital and academic settings. Her career has focused on developing education based on a nursing model that includes concepts of holism and healing.
Her Ph.D. in Nursing from The Ohio State University focused on the psychophysiology of stress and relaxation-based interventions to promote autonomic self-regulation and immune function in people living with HIV. She has attained certification in Psychosynthesis, Guided Imagery, and more recently, the Social Resilience Model; she has presented numerous papers on integrating holism into curricula as well as caregiver wellbeing and resilience including Adelaide, Australia, 2011; Reykjavik, Iceland, 2015; American Holistic Nurses Association Phoenix, 2016 & Niagara Falls, 2018.
During her tenure as Director, Post-Graduate Programs at Capital University, Sharon taught the graduate theory course and co-developed a theoretically grounded holistic healing course as the foundation for graduate study; the graduate program has been endorsed by the American Holistic Nurses Credentialing Center. Since her retirement, she has co-developed and implemented numerous educational interventions designed to develop the Therapeutic Capacity of working nurses and nursing students. This work includes concepts of centering, compassion, managing suffering, the psychophysiology of resilience and essential contemplative practices to develop stress resilience, deal with moral distress and promote long-term wellness. She is currently teaching courses in Personal Knowing and Nursing Ethics for undergraduate nursing students at Heritage University. Her most recent publication is dedicated to holistic self-care and self-development. (Shields, D. & Stout-Shaffer, S. 2020). Self-Development: The foundation of holistic self-care. In Helming, M., Shields, D., Avino, K., & Rosa, W. Holistic nursing: A handbook for Practice (8th). Jones and Bartlett Learning, Burlington MA.)