Author – Afaf Ibrahim Meleis, RN, PhD, DrPS(hon), FAAN, LL (Living Legend)*
Year First Published – 1994
- Developmental transition
- Situational transition
- Wellness/illness transition
- Organizational transition
- Cultural transition
- Single transition
- Multiple transitions
- Sequential transitions
- Simultaneous transitions
- Related transitions
- Unrelated transitions
- Change and difference
- Transition time span
- Critical points and events
- Personal Characteristics
- Perceptions of and meanings attached to health
- Cultural beliefs
- Socioeconomic status
- Environmental Characteristics
- Community resources
- Societal conditions
- Assessment of readiness
- Risk assessment
- Transition preparation
- Role supplementation
- Creation of a healthy environment
- Process Indicators
- Feeling connected
- Location and being situated
- Developing confidence and coping
- Outcome Indicators
- Fluid integrative identities
- Health outcomes
- Developmental outcomes
- Behavioral outcomes
A conceptual framework or a theoretical framework of nursing
The Transitions Framework/Transitions Theory focuses on “the human experiences, the responses, [and] the consequences of transitions on the well-being of people.”. . . The goal of Transitions Framework nursing is “to help people go through healthy transitions, [including] mastery of behaviors, sentiments, cues, and symbols associated with new roles and identities] and non-problematic processes, to enhance healthy outcomes” (Meleis, A. I. (2010). Transitions from practice to evidence-based models of care. In A. I. Meleis (Ed.), Transitions theory: Middle-range and situation-specific theories in nursing research and practice (p 5). New York, NY: Springer.)
Meleis, A. I. (Ed.). (2010). Transitions theory: Middle-range and situation-specific theories in nursing research and practice. New York, NY: Springer.
Meleis, A. I. (2018). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Meleis, A. I. (2015). Transitions theory. In M. C. Smith & M. E. Parker (Eds.). Nursing theories and nursing practice (4th ed., pp. 361-380). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis
Meleis, A. I ., Sawyer, L. M., Im, E.-O., Messias, D. K. H., & Schumacher, K. (2000). Experiencing transitions: An emerging middle-range theory. Advances in Nursing Science, 23(1), 12-28.
Schumacher, K. L., & Meleis, A. I. (1994). Transitions: A central concept in nursing. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 26, 119-127.
Chick, N., & Meleis, A. I. (1986). Transitions: A nursing concern. In P. L. Chinn (Ed.), Nursing research methodology: Issues and implementation (pp. 237-257). Rockville, MD: Aspen.
Clayton State University School of Nursing. (2012). Philosophy. Retrieved from
Coffey, A. (2014). Transitions theory. In J. J. Fitzpatrick & G. McCarthy (Eds.). (2014). Theories guiding nursing research and practice: Making nursing knowledge explicit (pp. 51-68). New York, NY: Springer.
Im, E-O. (2010). Transition theory. In M. R. Alligood & A. M. Tomey (Eds.), Nursing theorists and their work (7th ed., pp. 416-433). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.
Im, E.-O. (2018). Theory of transitions. In M. J. Smith & P. R. Liehr (Eds.), Middle-range theory for nursing (4th ed., pp. 265-287). New York, NY: Springer.
Im, E. (2009). Ethnic differences in symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition. Health Care for Women International, 30, 339-355.
Im, E-O., Lee, S. H., & Chee, W. (2010). Black women in menopausal transition. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecological, and Neonatal Nursing, 39, 435-443.
Im, E., Lee, S. H., & Chee, W. (2011). “Being conditioned, yet becoming strong”: Asian American Women in menopausal transition. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 22, 290-299.
Im, E., Liu, Y., Dormire, S., & Chee, W. (2008). Menopausal symptom experience: An online forum study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62, 541-550.
Situation-specific theories derived from the Transitions Framework/Transitions Theory
Theory of well-being of refugee women during cultural transition
Baird, M. B. (2012). Well-being in refugee women experiencing cultural transition. Advances in Nursing Science, 35,:249–263.
Theory of transition to adult day health services
Bull, M. J., & McShane, R. E. (2008). Seeking what’s best during the transition to adult day health services. Qualitative Health Research, 18, 597–605.
Theory of women farmworker migration transition
Clingerman E. A. (2007). Situation-specific theory of migration transition for migrant farmworker women. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice. 21, 220–235.
Theory of hope during transition for people with heart failure
Davidson, P. M., Dracup, K., Phillips, J., Padilla, G., & Daly, J. (2007). Maintaining hope in transition: A theoretical framework to guide interventions for people with heart failure. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 22(1), 58–64.
Theory of care transitions
Geary, C. R., & Schumacher, K. L. (2012). Care transitions: integrating transition theory and complexity science concepts. Advances in Nursing Science, 35, 236–248.
Theory of Korean immigrant women’s menopausal symptoms
Im, E. O., & Meleis, A. I. (1999). A situation specific theory of Korean immigrant women’s menopausal transition. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 31, 333-338.
Theory of Asian-Americans’ cancer pain experience
Im, E. O. (2008). The situation specific theory of pain experience for Asian-American cancer patients. Advances in Nursing Science, 31, 319-331.
Theory of Caucasians’ cancer pain experience
Im, E. O. (2006). A situation-specific theory of Caucasian cancer patients’ pain experience. Advances in Nursing Science, 2, 232-244.
Theory of Asian immigrant women’s menopausal symptoms
Im, E. O. (2010). A situation-specific theory of Asian immigrant women’s menopausal symptom experience in the United States. Advances in Nursing Science, 33, 143-157.
Afaf Ibrahim Meleis (1942 – )
PhD in medical and social psychology, University of California, Los Angeles 1968)
MA in sociology, University of California, Los Angeles (1966)
MS in nursing, University of California, Los Angeles (1964)
BS in nursing, University of Alexandria, Egypt (1961)
Dr. Meleis has held faculty positions at the University of California, Los Angeles (1966-1971), the University of California, San Francisco (1971-2002), and the University of Pennsylvania (2002-present). She served as Dean, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, from 2002 to 2014.
(from Im, E-O. (2010). Transition theory. In M. R. Alligood & A. M. Tomey (Eds.), Nursing theorists and their work (7th ed., pp. 416-433). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.)
* Contributing Authors
The following authors have contributed and continue to contribute to the further development of Transitions Framework/Transitions Theory:
Eun Ok Im
DeAnne k. Hilfinger Messias