Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings

Contributor: Jacqueline Fawcett
September 1, 2018

Author – Martha E. Rogers, RN, BS, MS, MPH, ScD, FAAN

Year First Published – 1970
Rogers diagram

© 2018 Jacqueline Fawcett

Major Concepts

ENERGY FIELD

  • Human Energy Field
  • Environmental Energy Field

OPENNESS

PATTERN

PANDIMENSIONALITY

HOMEODYNAMICS

  • Resonancy
  • Helicy
  • Integrality

WELL-BEING

INDEPENDENT SCIENCE OF NURSING

ART OF NURSING PRACTICE

PRACTICE METHODOLOGY: THE HEALTH PATTERNING PRACTICE METHOD

  • Pattern Manifestation Knowing and Appreciation—Assessment
  • Voluntary Mutual Patterning
  • Pattern Manifestation Knowing and Appreciation—Evaluation
Typology

A conceptual model of nursing

Brief Description

“Rogers’ work focuses on unitary, irreducible human beings and their environments. Rogers (personal communication, June 17, 1987) regarded her work as an abstract conceptual system that ‘is not of the same order as the other conceptual models, nor does it derive from the same world view. Rather, it derives from a different world view and deals with a different phenomenon.’ . . . [The goal of nursing [is] to promote human betterment wherever people are, on planet earth or in outer space. (Fawcett, J., & DeSanto-Madeya, S. (2013). Contemporary nursing knowledge: Analysis and evaluation of nursing models and theories (3rd ed., pp. 231-232). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.).

In particular, the Science of Unitary Human Beings provides a distinctive nursing frame of reference for viewing human beings, the mutual human-environmental process, and nursing practice. Nurses who are concerned with the Science of Unitary Human Beings are challenged to contribute to its conceptual, theoretical and practical development. Nurses are responsible for the logical analysis of the framework and the generation and testing of theories (http://societyofrogerianscholars.org/philosophy.html)

Primary Sources

Society of Rogerian Scholars website

Barrett, E. A. M., & Malinski, V. M. (Eds.). (1994). Martha E. Rogers: Eighty years of excellence. New York, NY: Society of Rogerian Scholars.

Barrett, E. A. M., & Malinski, V. M. (Eds.). (1994). Martha E. Rogers: Her life and her work. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.

Huch, M. H. (1991). Perspectives on health. Nursing Science Quarterly, 4, 33–40.

Huch, M. H. (1995). Nursing and the next millennium. Nursing Science Quarterly, 8, 38–44.

Malinski, V. M. (1986). Further ideas from Martha Rogers. In V. M. Malinski (Ed.), Explorations on Martha Rogers’ science of unitary human beings (pp. 9– 14). Norwalk, CT: Appleton Century Crofts.

Randell, B. P. (1992). Nursing theory: The 21st century. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 176–184.

Rogers, M. E. (1961). Educational revolution in nursing. New York< NY: Macmillan.

Rogers, M. E. (1963). Some comments on the theoretical basis of nursing practice. Nursing Science, 1(1), 11–13, 60–61.

Rogers, M. E. (1964). Reveille in nursing. Philadelphia, NY: F.A. Davis.

Rogers, M. . (1970). An introduction to the theoretical basis of nursing. Philadelphia, P: F.A. Davis.

Rogers, M. E. (1980a). Nursing: A science of unitary man. In J. P. Riehl & C. Roy (Eds.), Conceptual models for nursing practice (2nd ed., pp. 329–337). New York, NY: Appleton Century Crofts.

Rogers, M. E. (1981). Science of unitary man. A paradigm for nursing. In G. E. Lasker (Ed.), Applied systems and cybernetics. Vol. 4. Systems research in health care, biocybernetics and ecology (pp. 1719–1722). New York, NY: Pergamon Press.

Rogers, M. E. (1983). Science of unitary human beings: A paradigm for nursing. In I. W. Clements and F. B. Roberts (Ed.), Family health: A theoretical approach to nursing care (pp. 219–227). New York, NY: Wiley.

Rogers, M. E. (1985). A paradigm for nursing. In R. Wood & J. Kekahbah (Eds.), Examining the cultural implications of Martha E. Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings (pp. 13–23). Lecompton, KS: Wood Kekahbah Associates.

Rogers, M.E. (1986). Science of unitary human beings. In V. M. Malinski (Ed.), Explorations on Martha Rogers’ science of unitary human beings (pp. 3–8). Norwalk, CT: Appleton Century Crofts.

Rogers, M.E. (1987a). Nursing research in the future. In J. Roode (Ed.), Changing patterns in nursing education (pp. 121–123). New York, NY: National League for Nursing.

Rogers, M.E. (1987b). Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings. In R. R. Parse (Ed.), Nursing science. Major paradigms, theories, and critiques (pp. 139– 146). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Rogers, M.E. (1988). Nursing science and art: A prospective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1, 99–102.

Rogers, M.E. (1989). Nursing: A science of unitary human beings. In J. P. Riehl-Sisca (Ed.), Conceptual models for nursing practice (3rd ed., pp. 181–188). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Rogers, M. E. (1990). Nursing: Science of unitary, irreducible, human beings: Update 1990. In E.A.M. Barrett (Ed.), Visions of Rogers’ science based nursing (pp. 5–11). New York, NY: National League for Nursing.

Rogers, M. E. (1990). Space age paradigm for new frontiers in nursing. In M.E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 105–113). New York, NY: National League for Nursing.

Rogers, M. E. (1992). Nightingale’s notes on nursing: Prelude to the 21st century. In F.N. Nightingale, Notes on nursing: What it is, and what it is not (Commemorative edition, pp. 58–62). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.

Rogers, M. E. (1992). Nursing science and the space age. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 27–34.

Rogers, M. E. (1992). Window on science of unitary human beings. In M. O’Toole (Ed.), Miller Keane encyclopedia and dictionary of medicine, nursing, and allied health (p. 1339). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Rogers, M. E. (1994). Nursing science evolves. In M. Madrid & E. A. M. Barrett (Eds.),

Rogers’ scientific art of nursing practice (pp. 3–9). New York, NY: National League for Nursing Press.

Rogers, M. E. (1994). The science of unitary human beings: Current perspectives. Nursing Science Quarterly, 7, 33–35.

Rogers, M. E. (2005). Rogerian science review: Glossary. Visions: The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science, 13, 70-71. [Reprinted from Rogerian Nursing Science News, Fall 1991.]

Rogers, M. E., Doyle, M. B., Racolin, A., & Walsh, P. C. (1990). A conversation with Martha Rogers on nursing in space. In E. A. M. Barrett (Ed.), Visions of Rogers’ science based nursing (pp. 375–386). New York, NY: National League for Nursing.

Rogers, M .E., & Malinski, V. (2005). Questions for Dr. Martha Rogers. Visions: The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science, 13, 65-67. [Reprinted from Rogerian Nursing Science News, 1(3), 6, 1989.]

Safier, G. (1977). Contemporary American leaders: An oral history. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Smith, M.J. (1988). Perspectives on nursing science. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1, 80–85.

Takahashi, T. (1992). Perspectives on nursing knowledge. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 86–91.

Grand theories derived from Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings

Theory of Accelerating Evolution

Rogers, M. E. (1980). Nursing: A science of unitary man. In J. P. Riehl & C. Roy (Eds.), Conceptual models for nursing practice (2nd ed., pp. 329–337). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Rogers, M. E. (1986). Science of unitary human beings. In V. M. Malinski (Ed.), Explorations on Martha Rogers’ science of unitary human beings (pp. 3–8). Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Rogers, M. E. (1992). Nursing science and the space age. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 27–34.

Theory of Rhythmical Correlates of Change/ Theory of Manifestations of Field Patterning in Unitary Human Beings

Rogers, M. E. (1980). Nursing: A science of unitary man. In J. P. Riehl & C. Roy (Eds.), Conceptual models for nursing practice (2nd ed., pp. 329–337). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Rogers, M. E. (1986). Science of unitary human beings. In V. M. Malinski (Ed.), Explorations on Martha Rogers’ science of unitary human beings (pp. 3–8). Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Rogers, M. E. (1992). Nursing science and the space age. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 27–34.
Butcher, H. K., & Malinski, V. M. (2010). Martha E. Rogers science of unitary human beings. In M. E. Parker & M. C. Smith, Nursing theories and nursing practice (3rd ed., pp. 253-276). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Theory of Paranormal Phenomena/ Theory of Emergence of Paranormal Phenomena

Rogers, M. E. (1980). Nursing: A science of unitary man. In J. P. Riehl & C. Roy (Eds.), Conceptual models for nursing practice (2nd ed., pp. 329–337). New York,NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Rogers, M.E. (1986). Science of unitary human beings. In V. M. Malinski (Ed.), Explorations on Martha Rogers’ science of unitary human beings (pp. 3–8). Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Rogers, M.E. (1992). Nursing science and the space age. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 27–34.
Butcher, H.K., & Malinski, V.M. (2010). Martha E. Rogers science of unitary human beings. In M. E. Parker & M.C. Smith, Nursing theories and nursing practice (3rd ed., pp. 253-276). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness

Newman, M.A. (1986). Health as expanding consciousness. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Newman, M.A. (1994). Health as expanding consciousness (2nd ed.). New York, NY: National League for Nursing.

Theory of Humanbecoming

Parse, R.R. (1981). Man-Living-Health. A theory of nursing. New York< NY: Wiley. [Reprinted 1989. Albany, NY: Delmar.]
Parse, R.R. (1992). Human becoming: Parse’s theory of nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 35–42.
Parse, R.R. (1998). The human becoming school of thought: A perspective for nurses and other health professionals. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Parse, R.R. (2007). The humanbecoming school of thought in 2050. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20, 308-311.

Life Perspective Rhythm Model

Fitzpatrick, J. J. (1983). Life perspective rhythm model. In J. J. Fitzpatrick & A. L. Whall (Eds.), Conceptual models of nursing: Analysis and application (pp. 295–302). Bowie, MD: Brady.
Fitzpatrick, J. J. (1989). A life perspective rhythm model. In J. J. Fitzpatrick & A. L. Whall (Eds.), Conceptual models of nursing: Analysis and application (2nd ed., pp. 401–407). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Middle-Range Theories Derived from Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings

Health Empowerment Theory

Shearer, N. B. C. (2009). Health empowerment theory as a guide for practice. Geriatric Nursing, 30(2; Suppl 1), 4-10.

Power as Knowing Participation in Change

Barrett, E. A. M. (1986). Investigation of the principle of helicy: The relationship of human field motion and power. In V. M. Malinski (Ed.), Explorations on Martha Rogers’ science of unitary human beings (pp. 173–188). Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Caroselli, C., & Barrett, E.A.M. (1998). A review of the power as knowing participation in change literature. Nursing Science Quarterly, 11, 9–16.

Theory of Aging

Alligood, M.R., & McGuire, S.L. (2000). Perception of time, sleep patterns, and activity in senior citizens: A test of Rogerian theory of aging. Visions: The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science, 8, 6–14.

Theory of Aging as Emerging Brilliance

Butcher, H. K. (2003). Aging as emerging brilliance; Advancing Rogers’ unitary theory of aging. Visions: The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science, 11, 55-66.

Theory of the Art of Professional Nursing/ Theory of the Art of Nursing

Alligood, M.R. (2002). A theory of the art of nursing discovered in Rogers’ science of unitary human beings. International Journal for Human Caring, 6(2), 55–60.
Alligood, M.R. (2010). Philosophies, models, and theories: Critical thinking structures. In M. R. Alligood, Nursing theory: Utilization and application (4th ed., pp. 47-71). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

Theory of Creativity, Actualization, and Empathy

Alligood, M.R. (1991). Testing Rogers’ theory of accelerating change. The relationships among creativity, actualization, and empathy in persons 18 to 92 years of age. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 13, 84–96.

Theory of Diversity of Human Field Pattern

Hastings-Tolsma, M. (2006). Toward a theory of diversity of human field pattern. Visions: The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science, 14(2), 34-47.

Theory of Enfolding Health-as-Wholeness-and-Harmony

Barrett, E. A. M., Cowling, W. R., III, Carboni, J.T., & Butcher, H. K. (1997). Unitary perspectives on methodological practices. In M. Madrid (Ed.), Patterns of Rogerian knowing (pp. 47–62). New York,NY: National League for Nursing Press.

Theory of Enlightenment

Hills, R.G.S., & Hanchett, E. (2001). Human change and individuation in pivotal life situations: Development and testing the theory of enlightenment. Visions: The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science, 9, 6–19.

Theory of Healthiness

Leddy, S. K., & Fawcett, J. (1997). Testing the theory of healthiness: Conceptual and methodological issues. In M. Madrid (Ed.), Patterns of Rogerian knowing (pp. 75–86). New York, NY: National League for Nursing Press.

Theory of Human Field Motion

Ference, H. M. (1986). The relationship of time experience, creativity traits, differentiation, and human field motion. In V. M. Malinski (Ed.), Explorations on Martha Rogers’ science of unitary human beings (pp. 95–106). Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Ference, H.M. (1989). Nursing science theories and administration. In B. Henry, C. Arndt, M. DiVincenti, & A. Marriner-Tomey (Eds.), Dimensions of nursing administration. Theory, research, education, and practice. (pp. 121–131). Boston: Blackwell Scientific.

Theory of Intentionality

Zahourek, R. P. (2004). Intentionality forms the matrix of healing: A theory. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 10(6), 40-49.
Zahourek, R. P. (2005). Intentionality: Evolutionary development in healing: A ground theory study for holistic nursing. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 23, 89-109. (See also Malinski, V. M. (2006). Rogerian science-based nursing theories. Nursing Science Quarterly, 19, 7-12.)

Theory of Kaleidoscoping in Life’s Turbulence

Butcher, H. K. (1993). Kaleidoscoping in life’s turbulence: From Seurat’s art to Rogers’ nursing science. In M. E. Parker (Ed.), Patterns of nursing theories in practice (pp. 183–198). New York, NY: National League for Nursing.

Theory of Pattern

Alligood, M.R., & Fawcett, J. (2004). An interpretive study of Martha Rogers’ conception of pattern. Visions: The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science, 12, 8-13.
Alligood, M.R. (2010). Philosophies, models, and theories: Critical thinking structures. In M.R. Alligood, Nursing theory: Utilization and application (4th ed., pp. 47-71). St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier.

Theory of Perceived Dissonance

Bultemeier, K. (1997). Photo-disclosure: A research methodology for investigating unitary human beings. In M. Madrid (Ed.), Patterns of Rogerian knowing (pp. 63–74). New York, NY: National League for Nursing Press.

Theory of Self-Transcendence

Reed, P. G. (1991). Toward a nursing theory of self-transcendence: Deductive reformulation using developmental theories. Advances in Nursing Science, 13(4), 64–77.
Reed, P. G. (1997). The place of transcendence in nursing’s science of unitary human beings: Theory and research. In M. Madrid (Ed.), Patterns of Rogerian knowing (pp. 187–196). New York, NY: National League for Nursing Press.
Reed, P. G. (2003). Theory of self-transcendence. In M. J. Smith & P. R. Liehr (Eds.), Middle range theory for nursing (pp. 145-165). New York, NY: Springer.

Theory of Sentience Evolution

Parker, K. P. (1989). The theory of sentience evolution: A practice-level theory of sleeping, waking, and beyond waking patterns based on the science of unitary human beings. Rogerian Nursing Science News, 2(1), 4–6. [See also Malinski, V. M. (2001). Martha E. Rogers: Science of unitary human beings. In M. E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories and nursing practice (p. 199). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.]

Author

Martha E. Rogers (1914-1994)

Education

  • University of Tennessee (1931-1933) Science

    Diploma in Nursing (1936) Knoxville, TN, General Hospital

  • BS (1037) George Peabody College, Nashville, TN
  • MA (1945) Public Health Nursing, Teacher’s College, Columbia University, New York, NY
  • MPH (1952) and ScD (1954), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
  • Honorary doctorates from Duquesne University, University of San Diego, Iona College, Fairfield University, Mercy College, Emory University, Adelphi University, Washburn University of Topeka

Experience

  • Rural public health nursing in Michigan, visiting nursing in Connecticut,
  • Established the Visiting Nurse Service in Phoenix, AZ
  • Professor and Head, Division of Nursing, New York University (1954-1975)
  • Professor, Division of Nursing, New York University (1976-1979)— from Gunther, M. E. (2010). Unitary human beings. In M.R. Alligood & A. M. Tomey (Eds.) Nursing theorists and their work (7th ed., pp. 242-264). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.