Roy’s Adaptation Model

Contributor: Jacqueline Fawcett
September 1, 2018

Author – Callista Roy, BS, MS (Nursing), MS (Sociology), PhD, FAAN

Announcement

The Roy Academia Nursology Research Center has been established at St. Mary’s University of Kurume, Japan. The purpose of the Center is” to explore Mercy, Caring, and Love through practice and education” RAA (Roy Adaptation Association) Review, 22(1), 4, Fall 2018).

Year First Published – 1970

© 2018 Jacqueline Fawcett

Major Concepts

HUMAN ADAPTIVE SYSTEM

  • Individual Persons
  •  Groups or Relational Persons

COPING PROCESSES

  • Individuals: Regulator Coping Subsystem
  • Individuals: Cognator Coping Subsystem
  • Groups: Stabilizer Subsystem Control Process
  • Groups: Innovator Subsystem Control Process

BEHAVIOR

  • Individuals and Groups: Adaptive Response
  • Individuals and Groups: Ineffective Response

ADAPTIVE MODES

  • Individuals: Physiological Mode
    • Oxygenation
    • Nutrition
    • Elimination
    • Activity and Rest
    • Protection
    • Senses
    • Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
    • Neurological Function
    • Endocrine Function
  • Groups: Physical Mode
  • Individuals: Self-Concept Mode
    • Physical Self (Body Sensation, Body Image)
    • Personal Self (Self-Consistency, Self-Ideal, Moral-Ethical-Spiritual Self)
  • Groups: Group Identity Mode
    • Interpersonal Relationships
    • Group Self-Image
    • Social Milieu
    • Group Culture
  • Individuals and Groups: Role Function Mode
    • Primary Role
    • Secondary Role
    • Tertiary Role
    • Instrumental Behavior
    • Expressive Behavior
    • Role-Taking
    • Integrating Roles
  • Individuals and Groups: Interdependence Mode
    • Affectional Adequacy (Individuals and Groups)
    • Developmental Adequacy (Individuals and Groups)
    • Resource Adequacy (Individuals and Groups)
    • Significant Others (Individuals)
    • Support Systems (Individuals)
    • Context (Groups)
    • Infrastructure (Groups)
    • Resources (Groups)

STIMULI

  • Focal Stimulus
  • Contextual Stimuli
  • Residual Stimuli

ADAPTATION

  • Survival
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
  • Mastery
  • Person and Environment Transformations

ADAPTATION LEVEL

  • Integrated Life Process
  • Compensatory Life Process
  • Compromised Life Process

HEALTH

SCIENCE

  • Basic Nursing Science
  • Clinical Nursing Science

ART

PRACTICE METHODOLOGY: THE ROY ADAPTATION MODEL NURSING PROCESS

  • Assessment of Behavior
  • Assessment of Stimuli
  • Nursing Diagnosis
  • Goal Setting
  • Intervention
  • Evaluation
Typology

A conceptual model of nursing

Brief Description

“Roy’s work focuses on human adaptive system responses and environmental stimuli, which are constantly changing. . . . [The] goal of nursing [is] to promote adaptation for individuals and groups in the four adaptive modes, thus contributing to health, quality of life, and dying with dignity by assessing behavior and factors that influence adaptive abilities and by intervening to expand those abilities and to enhance environmental interactions.” (Fawcett, J., & DeSanto-Madeya, S. (2013). Contemporary nursing knowledge: Analysis and evaluation of nursing models and theories (3rd ed., pp. 264-265). Philadelphia, PA. F. A. Davis.)

Primary Sources

Roy Adaptation Model on the web

Andrews, H.A., & Roy, C. (1986). Essentials of the Roy adaptation model. Norwalk, CT: Appleton Century Crofts.

Artinian, N.T., & Roy, C. (1990). Strengthening the Roy adaptation model through conceptual clarification. Commentary [Artinian] and response [Roy]. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3, 60–66.

Boston Based Adaptation Research in Nursing Society (1999). Roy adaptation model based research: 25 years of contributions to nursing science. Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International Center Nursing Press.

Frederickson, K., & Velasco-Whetsell, M. (2007). Tribute to the theorists. Callista Roy over the years. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20, 107.

Roy, C. (1970). Adaptation: A conceptual framework for nursing. Nursing Outlook, 18, 42–45.

Roy, C. (1971). Adaptation: A basis for nursing practice. Nursing Outlook, 19, 254–257.

Roy, C. (1974). The Roy adaptation model. In J. P. Riehl & C. Roy (Eds.), Conceptual models for nursing practice (pp. 135–144). New York< NY: Appleton-Century Crofts.

Roy, C. (1975). A diagnostic classification system for nursing. Nursing Outlook, 23, 90–94.

Roy, C. (1976). Introduction to nursing: An adaptation model. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Roy, C. (1979). Relating nursing theory to education: A new era. Nurse Educator, 4(2), 16–21.

Roy, C. (1980). The Roy adaptation model. In J.P . Riehl & C. Roy (Eds.), Conceptual models for nursing practice (2nd ed., pp. 179–188). New York, NY: Appleton Century Crofts.

Roy, C. (1981). A systems model of nursing care and its effect on quality of human life. In G. E. Lasker (Ed.), Applied systems and cybernetics. Vol. 4. Systems research in health care, biocybernetics and ecology (pp. 1705– 1714). New York, NY: Pergamon Press.

Roy, C. (1983). Roy adaptation model. In I.W. Clements & F.B. Roberts (Eds.), Family health: A theoretical approach to nursing care (pp. 255–278). New York: Wiley.

Roy, C. (1984). Introduction to nursing: An adaptation model (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Roy, C. (1987). The influence of nursing models on clinical decision making II. In K. J. Hannah, M. Reimer, W.Mills, & S. Letourneau (Eds.), Clinical judgment and decision making: The future with nursing diagnosis (pp. 42– 47). New York: Wiley.

Roy, C. (1987). Roy’s adaptation model. In R. R. Parse (Ed.), Nursing science: Major paradigms, theories, and critiques (pp. 35–45). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Roy, C. (1988). An explication of the philosophical assumptions of the Roy adaptation model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1, 26–34.

Roy, C. (1988). Sister Callista Roy. In T. M. Schorr & A. Zimmerman (Eds.), Making choices. Taking chances. Nurse leaders tell their stories (pp. 291–298). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Roy, C. (1989). The Roy adaptation model. In J.P. Riehl Sisca (Ed.), Conceptual models for nursing practice (3rd ed., pp. 105–114). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Roy, C. (1990). Nursing care in theory and practice: Early interventions in brain injury. In R. Harris, R. Burns, & R. Rees (Eds.), Recovery from brain injury (pp. 95–110). Adalaide, Australia: Institute for Learning Difficulties.

Roy, C. (1991). Theory and research for clinical knowledge development. Journal of Japanese Nursing Research, 14(1), 21–29.

Roy, C. (1991). Structure of knowledge: Paradigm, model, and research specifications for differentiated practice. In I.E. Goertzen (Ed.), Differentiating nursing practice: Into the twenty first century (pp. 31–39). Kansas City, MO: American Academy of Nursing.

Roy, C. (1992). Vigor, variables, and vision: Commentary on Florence Nightingale. In F. N. Nightingale, Notes on nursing: What it is, and what it is not (Commemorative edition, pp. 63–71). Philadelphia,PA: Lippincott.

Roy, C. (1997). Future of the Roy model: Challenge to redefine adaptation. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10, 42–48.

Roy, C. (2001). Alterations in cognitive processing. In C. Stewart-Amidei & J. A. Kunkel (Eds.), AANN’s neuroscience nursing: Human responses to neurologic dysfunction (2nd ed., pp. 275-323). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Roy, C. (2003). Reflections on nursing research and the Roy adaptation model. Japanese Journal of Nursing Research, 36(1), 7-11.

Roy, C. (2007). Knowledge as universal cosmic imperative. In C. Roy & D. A. Jones (Eds.), Nursing knowledge development and clinical practice (pp. 145-161). New York< NY: Springer.

Roy, C. (2007). Update from the future: Thinking of theorist Callista Roy. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20, 113-116.

Roy, C. (2008). Adversity and theory: The broad picture. Nursing Science Quarterly, 21, 138-139.

Roy, C. (2009). The Roy adaptation model (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Roy, C. (2011). Extending the Roy adaptation model to meet changing global needs. Nursing Science Quarterly, 24, 345-351.

Roy, C., & Andrews, H.A. (1991). The Roy adaptation model: The definitive statement. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Roy, C., & Andrews, H.A. (1999). The Roy adaptation model (2nd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Roy, C., & Anway, J. (1989). Theories and hypotheses for nursing administration. In B. Henry, M. DiVincenti, C. Arndt, & A. Marriner Tomey (Eds.), Dimensions of nursing administration: Theory, research, education, and practice (pp. 75–88). Boston: Blackwell Scientific.

Roy, C., & Corliss, C. P. (1993). The Roy adaptation model: Theoretical update and knowledge for practice. In M.E. Parker (Ed.), Patterns of nursing theories in practice (pp. 215–229). New York: National League for Nursing.

Roy, C., & Roberts, S .L. (1981). Theory construction in nursing: An adaptation model. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Roy, C., Velasco-Whetsell, M., & Frederickson, K. (2007). Cultural issues of the Roy adaptation model examined. Roy Adaptation Association Review, 9(2), 2.

Roy, C., & Zhan, L. (2001). Sister Callista Roy: The Roy adaptation model. In M.E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories and nursing practice (pp. 315-327). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis

Roy, C., & Zhan, L. (2006). Sister Callista Roy’s adaptation model and its applications. In M.E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories and nursing practice (2nd ed., pp. 268-280). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis

Roy, C., & Zhan, L. (2010). Sister Callista Roy’s adaptation model. . In M. E. Parker & M.C. Smith, Nursing theories and nursing practice (3rd ed., pp. 167-181). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Whittemore, R., & Roy, C. (2002). Adapting to diabetes mellitus: A theory synthesis. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15, 311-317.

Theories Derived from Roy’s Adaptation Model

Theory of the Person as an Adaptive System

Roy, C., & Roberts, S.L. (1981). Theory construction in nursing. An adaptation model. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Theory of the Physiological Mode

Roy, C., & Roberts, S.L. (1981). Theory construction in nursing. An adaptation model. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Theory of the Self-Concept Mode

Roy, C., & Roberts, S.L. (1981). Theory construction in nursing. An adaptation model. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Theory of the Role Function Mode

Roy, C., & Roberts, S.L. (1981). Theory construction in nursing. An adaptation model. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Theory of the Interdependence Mode

Roy, C., & Roberts, S.L. (1981). Theory construction in nursing. An adaptation model. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Nursing Model of Cognitive Processing (Roy, 1988a, 2001).

Roy, C. (1988). Altered cognition: An information processing approach. In P. H. Mitchell, L.C. Hodges, M. Muwaswes, & C. A. Walleck (Eds.), AANN’s neuroscience nursing: Phenomenon and practice: Human responses to neurological health problems (pp. 185–211). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.
Roy, C. (2001). Alterations in cognitive processing. In C. Stewart-Amidei & J. A. Kunkel (Eds.), AANN’s neuroscience nursing: Human responses to neurologic dysfunction (2nd ed., pp. 275-323). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Theory of caregiver stress

Tsai, P-F. (1999). Development of a middle-range theory of caregiver stress from the Roy adaptation model. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60, 133B.
Tsai, P-F. (2003) A middle-range theory of caregiver stress. Nursing Science Quarterly, 16, 137-145.

Theory of adapting to diabetes

Whittemore, R., & Roy, C. (2002). Adapting to diabetes mellitus: A theory synthesis. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15, 311-317.

Theory of psychosocial adaptation to termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly

Kruszewski, A.Z. (1999). Psychosocial adaptation to termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61, 194B.

Theory of adaptation during childbearing

Tulman, L., & Fawcett, J. (2003). Women’s health during and after pregnancy: A theory-based study of adaptation to change. New York, NY: Springer.

Theory of adaptation to chronic pain

Dunn, K.S. (2004). Toward a middle-range theory of adaptation to chronic pain. Nursing Science Quarterly, 17, 78-84.

Theory of chronic pain

Tsai, P., Tak, S., Moore, C., & Palencia, I. (2003). Testing a theory of chronic pain. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43, 158-169.

Theory of urine control

Jirovec, M.M., Jenkins, J., Isenberg, M., & Bairdi, J. (1999). Urine control theory derived from Roy’s conceptual framework. Nursing Science Quarterly, 12, 251-255.

Theory of successful aging

Flood, M. (2005). A mid-range nursing theory of successful aging. Journal of Theory Construction and Testing, 9, 35-39.

Theory of genetic vulnerability

Hamilton, R.J., & Bowers, B.J. (2007). The theory of genetic vulnerability: A Roy model exemplar. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20, 254-264.

Theory of facilitated sensemaking

Davidson, J.E. Facilitated sensemaking: A strategy and new middle-range theory to support families of intensive care unit patients. Critical Care Nurse, 30(6), 28-39.
Davidson, J.E., Daly, B.J., Agan, D., Brady, N.R., & Higgins P.A.(2009). Facilitated sensemaking: A new mid-range theory for family support. Communicating Nursing Research, 42, 354. [Abstract]
Davidson, J.E., Daly, B.J., Agan, D., Brady, N.R., & Higgins P.A. (2009). Facilitated sensemaking: Testing of a mid-range theory of family support. Communicating Nursing Research, 42, 353. [Abstract]

 Author

Sister Callista Roy

Member, Sisters of Saint Joseph of Carondelet

Education:

BS (1963) Mount Saint Mary’s College, Los Angeles, CA
MS in Nursing (1966) University of California, Los Angeles
MS in Sociology (1973) and PhD in Sociology (1977), University of California, Los Angeles
Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Nurse Scholar (1983-1985), University of California, San Francisco
Honorary doctorates from Alverno College, Eastern Michigan University, and St. Joseph’s College in Maine

Experience

Staff nurse in pediatrics
Faculty and administrations positions, Mount Saint Mary’s College, Los Angeles, CA
Faculty positions at University of Portland and Boston College

(Phillips, K. D. (2010). Adaptation model. In M.R. Alligood & A. M. Tomey (Eds.) Nursing theorists and their work (7th ed., pp. 335-365). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.