Martha E. Rogers, RN, MSc , EdD (Canada)

Guardians of the Discipline
Downlaads (used by permission)
Transformative Learning article
Canadian Nursing in the Year 2020
Enchantment of the Soul
Syllabus: Conceptual Basis of Nursing Practice
Syllabus: The Nature of Nursing Knowledge

Note: we are delighted to introduce a new Nursology.net series – “Guardians of the Discipline” featuring notable nurse leaders who have made significant achievements to assure the integrity and protection of nursology values and ideals.  We begin this series with Canada’s outstanding leader and scholar, Martha E. Rogers.

Martha E. Rogers (York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

Martha E. Rogers is a Canadian nursing scholar and consultant who has made substantial contributions to advancing nursing knowledge. She is currently a Senior Scholar at York University, Toronto, Ontario and was the founder, and remains the director, of Canadian Nursing Consultants. Her contributions in advancing an appreciation of nursing knowledge cross both those roles and fall into 3 major categories that overlap and inform each other:  1). curricular design and pedagogy; 2) consulting work with nursing organizations to promote conscious application of conceptual models practice and in organizational design, and 3) her work on transformative learning in nursing, alternative nursing futures, and development of the concept of enchantment of the nursing soul. 

 Being In a unique position as a nurse who had focused  on future studies during her doctorate, Martha was commissioned by the Canadian Nurses Association in 1995 to develop future scenarios for nursing in Canada in the year 2020.  The book, Canadian Nursing in the Year 2020 was published by the Canadian Nurses Association for a number of years after it was written.  Download this document here (by permission of the author and copyright holder). That work was clearly informed by Martha’s extensive involvement in the previous decade in helping nurses to understand and embrace nursing conceptual frameworks, whether teaching post-RN baccalaureate students or practicing nurses in their workplace.

 In Canadian Nursing in the Year 2020, Martha created 4 scenarios of nursing in 2020 and invited readers to create a 5th.  On the eve of 2020, it is as relevant and sobering to read as it was when it was first published. Elements of each of the scenarios are recognizable in the present time, likely to significantly different degrees in different countries, cultures, and health care systems.  At the end of each scenario, readers  are invited to reflect on their reactions to the scenario and consider what action is necessary to increase or decrease the chances of them happening.

Canadian Nursing in the Year 2020 concludes with a section entitled, “Can one person make a difference.” Believing that to be possible, Martha asserted that maintaining hope and the personal power to take action requires engaging nurses’ minds , hearts, and souls. Critical minds (mind), caring about people (heart), and connecting with the meaning and purpose of nursing  (soul) are among the essentials she identifies as necessary for us to believe that each of us can make a difference. Martha explored in considerably more depth, the concept of the nursing soul in an unpublished article entitled Enchantment of the Soul

 These ideas were informed by Martha’s early nursing practice and education.  In meeting with her recently, I asked her what first sparked her interest in nursing conceptual frameworks and she replied it was the professors in her Post-RN baccalaureate degree. So, it is not surprising that she began to take action in her position as as a Clinical Nurse Specialist at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, where she also served as Conceptual Framework Coordinator. Later, as an academic, Martha taught in a Post-RN BScN program at York.  One course she developed and taught focused on The Nature of Nursing Knowledge, and a second on the Conceptual Basis of Nursing Practice nursing. The transformative learning  approaches she developed in an unpublished manuscript as an approach to “facilitate “nurses’ learning and use of nursing conceptual frameworks” are evident in both course outlines.  As the School of Nursing evolved, Martha’s influence was evident again as the School adopted a caring-human science philosophy as a conceptual framework.1

 As a nursing consultant, Martha conducted many workshops and spoke at numerous conferences in Canada and the U.S. about transformative learning and facilitating nurses’ understanding and use of nursing conceptual frameworks. An example of this approach is seen in one of the videos she produced, “Conceptual Frameworks in Nursing Practice”, which is included below.

 Both through her academic and consulting roles, Martha was involved in research reporting the implementation and/or evaluation of use of nursing conceptual models in practice.  2,3, 4,5, 4 

Martha was passionate about the uniqueness of nursing knowledge and hoped to pass that passion on to others. Her goal was to facilitate nurses’ critical examination of dominant assumptions and values and the practice norms based upon them, and help them instead to value and give voice to their own nursing knowledge and imagine how nursing practice and health care institutions might be different if nursing values and knowledge were  a valued priority. I asked her recently what she thought her greatest contribution was as a “guardian of the discipline.”  This was her reply:  “If there is anything to be said about my work it would be that I held a belief about the beauty and potential power of unique nursing knowledge. It was my quest to explore nursing knowledge and to help others explore it through deep personal reflection and through critical appraisal of and emancipation from dominant paradigms.

References

 1.   Lewis S, Rogers M, Naef R. Caring-Human Science Philosophy in Nursing Education: Beyond the Curriculum Revolution. Int J Hum Caring. 2006;10(4):31-38.

2.   Rogers ME. Creating a Climate for the Implementation of a Nursing Conceptual Framework. JCEN. 1989;20(3):112-116.

3.   Shea H, Rogers M, Ross E, Tucker D, Fitch M, Smith I. Implementation of nursing conceptual models: observations of a multi-site research team. Can J Nurs Adm. 1989;2(1):15-20.

4.   Rogers, M., Jones Paul, L., Clarke, J., MacKay, C. Potter, M. Ward, W. The use of the Roy Adaptation Model in Nursing Administration. Can J Nurs Adm. 1991, June:21-26.

5.       Fitch, M., Rogers, M., Ross, E., Shea, H., Smith I., Tucker, D. Developing a plan to evaluate the use of nursing conceptual frameworks. Can J Nurs Adm. 1991, March/April:22-27.

 

 

Nursing Philosophy Conference in August – and More!

We have added a new 2019 “Future Event” related to the development of nursing knowledge – the 13th Philosophy in the Nurse’s World & 23rd International Philosophy of Nursing Conference, to be held in Victoria, BC, Canada,  August 18-20, 2019.  In addition to the conference information, you will now find two important dates related to this conference in our “Due Dates” sidebar feature —

  • The abstract due date is February 28, 2019
  • Early bird registration ends on June 21, 2019

But that is not all! In addition to our regular blog posts at least every Tuesday, Nursology.net is constantly being updated with the addition of nursing theories, models, philosophies, landmark events, additions to recent past events, and exemplars. To help you keep up, we have added a sidebar “Recently Added” feature.  We hope you will visit Nursology.net often and check out the resources that are available related to past, present and future nursing knowledge development!

You can do it — contribute to the Nursology.net blog!

We hope everyone has noticed that Nursology.net has heaps of opportunities for people to  contribute – but did you know that you can contribute to our blog?  This blog is a multi-author blog (MAB), plus we welcome guest authors – which gives you an opportunity to become familiar with the process of blogging.  But wait a minute – I can already “hear” in my mind some of the push-back to this idea:  “I don’t have time to blog.” “Writing a blog does not contribute to the list of publications I need for promotion – I can’t waste time blogging.” “I need citations to my work and blog posts do not get cited.”  OK – I hear you!  But before you turn away from this idea, indulge me for a few moments and consider some good reasons you might begin in the world of blogging!

  • Blogs give you an opportunity to write in a different “voice” – a more relaxed tone that reaches people in ways that formal writing does not.  You can express your opinion, test out an idea to see if it “flies,” and ask your readers for specific feedback.
  • In fact, writing a blog post helps you develop the courage to use your voice — a challenge nurses often face.  My idea for this blog post was in part prompted by a post in an entirely different field – written by Marte C.W. Solheim from Norway, who tells a compelling story about finding the courage, as a PhD Student and then a recent graduate, to use her voice in the field of economics and political science.
  • Blog posts do not take away from the necessary work involved in your scholarship – instead the process of writing a blog post is like “thinking” time – it is an opportunity to reflect on points of particular importance to the ongoing development of your ideas.
  • Blog posts are being cited more and more often, and any social media mention of published work contributes to the “altmetric attention score” that is now displayed on published articles to indicate the amount and reach of the content in an author’s published works.  One of  the very important features that we are including throughout Nursology.net is the name of the contributor of content on any page (and on the blog), and the date the information was posted, in order that Nursology.net content can be accurately and adequately cited, with due credit to the appropriate author.
  • Your blog post provides readers an opportunity to give you feedback – much like a presentation at a conference – even if you do not invite it!  Feedback on your blog post is documented evidence of how your ideas are being received.  And sometimes they contribute to the development of your ideas.
  • Writing a blog post is not nearly as hard as you might think!  Blog posts are short, to the point and can include any kind of commentary or opinion that you want to include.  Of course if you draw on another source for some of your ideas (as I have done in this post) – there are no style manuals or formating requirements – as long as you find a way to point accurately to your sources, you are good to go!
  • Blog posts have the potential to reach an audience that you would never reach in a published article — nursology colleagues who might never see your published articles,  important scholars in other fields, and most important, the public whose interests your work is intended to serve. As Patrick Dunleavy pointed out on a recent LSE Impact blog, having invested hours and hours of time on your work, why not spend a couple of hours crafting an accessible blog post that has the potential to reach a broad audience?
  • Writing for blogs is rapidly becoming a new form of scholarly communication that draws on many of the ideals of the open-access model – blogs are also referred to as short-form digital publishing.  They are intended to broadcast your ideas as widely as possible.
  • You do not have to trudge through the long and arduous process of journal or book publishing, especially if you blog on your own blog!  Blogs are open to “public review” – a form of review that is not replacing the very valuable process of anonymous peer review, but is increasingly valued as a way to determine the worth of ideas in a public forum. If someone takes issue with your ideas, in all likelihood you will find out about it in short order.  This is a huge benefit — you cannot adequately address what you do not know is “out there” and blog readers are one of your best sources to explore the landscape of opinion related to your ideas.

The nursology.net  multi-authored blog (MAB)  team members are committed to writing regularly for the blog in order to have a new post at least weekly, and to provide a diversity of perspective, style, and content!  Some of our bloggers write their posts directly, using the handy “add a post” feature on wordpress.com (where our site is hosted). Others  send me the content for their blog either by email or using our handy blog submission form (also a sub-menu item under “Blog Home” on our main menu!). You can see who is on our team in the right sidebar, showing everyone’s name and a link to their most recent posts.

As the lead blogger,  I  make sure the links and other details are in order, and schedule each post 2 to 4 weeks in advance. If your post is time-sensitive, we will post it at whatever date is optimal. If I have any questions about something that is not clear, or if I detect something that needs to be double-checked for accuracy, either I, or someone else on our management team will be in touch to make sure your post is the best it can be. We might do a bit of light editing to correct spelling or obvious grammatical errors, but we do not aim for perfection!  What we do NOT do is revise or change your own message – we want your post to reflect your own ideas, your own voice.  We welcome controversial content, especially when you include sound rationales for your perspective and welcome open discussion.  The only thing we will intervene with is anything that is disrespectful or harmful, or “flaming” of other individuals or groups.

So this is our invitation to you!!  Use this opportunity to try your hand at blogging!  Let me know about your idea and we will assist you in every way possible to become a published short-form digital author (or if you prefer, a published blogger)!

 

 

A Tribute to Margaret Ann Newman, PhD, FAAN (October 10, 1933 – December 18, 2018)

newmancelebration

Go to Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC) Theory Page
Download Newman HEC Reference List
Go to 2016 Newman Scholars Dialogue
Newman Theory/Research/Practice Society in Japan
Memorial Speech by Marlaine Smith
Memorial Speech by Dorothy Jones

Margaret Newman receiving Living Legend award

Dr. Margaret Ann Newman expanded the nursology horizon over the past 40 years with her thought-provoking work. She advanced the knowledge of the discipline of nursing and her wisdom continues to expand through the work of people inspired by her presence and written works. Margaret Newman’s transforming presence extends beyond boundaries of time and space.

As Margaret’s time in her body was narrowing, her niece, Donna Jean Mehr, asked me to help her write Margaret’s obituary for the Memphis newspaper. That obituary contains the chronological details of Margaret Newman’s life and work. In this tribute for the Nursology.net community, I would like to focus on the ways in which Margaret expanded our understanding of health, nursing theory, and nursing practice; embraced and advanced a paradigm of wholeness; and exemplified a spirit of generosity.

Margaret Newman Expanded our Understanding of Health, Nursing Theory, and Nursing Practice 

After graduating from Baylor University at the age of 21, Margaret returned home to Memphis to work and care for her mother who had been diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The process of caring for her mother was transformative. Not knowing the trajectory of the disease, Newman learned to live day by day, fully immersed in the present (Newman, 2008a). She (2008b) recounted learning that “each day is precious and that the time of one’s life is contained in the present” (p. 225). This realization permeated Margaret’s philosophy of nursing and her writing throughout her life. She came to realize that simply having a disease does not make a person unhealthy. Although Margaret’s mother’s life was confined by the disease, her life was not defined by the disease. In other words, Margaret’s mother could experience health and wholeness in the midst of having a chronic and progressive disease.

When her mother died, Margaret entered nursing school at the University of Tennessee in Memphis. In her studies, she read Dorothy Johnson’s article “The Significance of Nursing Care,” which asserted that nursing was different from medicine, and “therefore the underlying knowledge was different,” which in 1961 was a “revolutionary” claim (Newman, 1994a, p. 153).  Newman described Johnson’s article as “a bolt of light piercing the darkness and confusion” as she was trying to apply the mostly medical knowledge she was learning at UT College of Nursing to her nursing practice (p. 153). From that point forward, describing the body of knowledge that characterized nursing as its own discipline became Margaret’s career-long odyssey (1994a). Drawn by Johnson’s work, Newman entered the MS in medical-surgical nursing program at the University of California, San Francisco. During her master’s studies, Margaret published a manuscript titled “Identifying and Meeting Patient’s Needs in Short-Span Nurse-Patient Relationships” (Newman, 1966). Her focus on nursing presence to that which is meaningful in the life of the patient was taking root. 

After graduating from UCSF in 1964, the medical director of the Clinical Research Center at Bowld Hospital recruited Margaret back to Memphis to become the Clinical Research Center Director. The Research Center was affiliated with the U of TN and thus the unit on which it was housed was independent of the hospital. Newman began by educating the medical director on the nature of nursing practice so that he would not expect the nursing staff to do things that physicians could do for themselves, or which staff from other departments could do. She gave each nurse one day a week in the library for scholarly development so that the nurses could enrich their nursing knowledge base. Newman was increasingly convinced that nurses who are fully present with patients while doing the tasks of nursing can comprehend in a holistic sense what patients need to achieve a greater sense of health. The writings of nurse theorist Martha Rogers drew Newman’s attention in, as Rogers was articulating a new paradigm of health that expanded the nature of nursing practice. Rogers’ science of unitary human beings resonated with Newman’s conceptualization of health and nursing, and enhanced her ability to see the whole by concentrating on pattern. Newman knew she wanted to pursue a PhD in nursing and went to NYU to study with Rogers. After receiving her PhD in 1971, she joined Martha Rogers on the NYU nursing faculty. While at NYU, Newman (1972) published a seminal work on Nursing’s theoretical evolution and conducted postdoctoral workshops on nursing theory development. She spent the summer of 1976 consulting with nurses in Brazil on the development of the knowledge of the discipline of nursing. In 1977, Margaret took a position as the professor-in-charge of graduate studies at Penn State University, where she published the first primer on Theory Development in Nursing (Newman, 1979) and initiated nursing theory think tanks (see Peggy Chinn’s November 13 Blog). 

Newman introduced her theory of health as expanding consciousness at a nursing theory conference in New York in 1978. In her talk, she asserted that illness and health are a unitary process moving through varying degrees of organization and disorganization and manifest as pattern and meaning in people’s lives. She stressed that the responsibility of the nurse is to help people recognize the power within them to move to higher levels of consciousness, with consciousness defined as the information of the systems—the capacity of the system to interact with the environment (Newman, 1994b, p. 33).  The manifestation of disease is an explication of the underlying pattern of the person. In a mutual relationship, the nurse and patient focus on the meaning of the pattern, knowing that new insights will arise into how to move forward. Disease may bring the greatest insight into meaning and pattern—into expanding consciousness, and thus into health. Perhaps of consolation to those of us who are deeply mourning the loss of Margaret’s physical presence in our lives is what she wrote in the introduction to the 1994 edition of her Health as Expanding Consciousness book: “The expansion of consciousness is unending. In this way we can embrace aging and death. There is peace and meaning in suffering. We are free from all the things we have feared—loss, death, dependency. We can let go of fear” (Newman, 1994b, pp. xxiii-xxiv).

With an expanded philosophy of health, so too comes an expanded view of nursing. Readers are encouraged to delve into the writing of Margaret Newman and savor the rich banquet of nursing ideas laid before them in her published works, particularly the 1994 Health as Expanding Consciousness and 2008 Transforming Presence: The Difference that Nursing Makes books.

On the note of nursing presence, one of my favorite Margaret Newman stories to tell new nursing students involves Margaret and her NYU and UMN colleague, Ellen Eagan. After they retired as Nursing Professors from the UMN School of Nursing, Margaret and Ellen lived in the same building in downtown St. Paul, Minnesota. Margaret had a cat named Punk, whom she cherished. Punk was sick and needed an injection, so Margaret called Ellen to come over and help her. They were preparing to give Punk his shot. Margaret was lovingly holding Punk in her arms. Ellen took the syringe with the medication, approached Margaret and Punk, stopped, and asked Margaret, “Would you rather be the nurse?” Margaret smiled and replied, “I am being the nurse!”

Margaret Newman Embraced a Paradigm of Wholeness

Newman called nurses to see the whole of the patterns of people’s lives in relationship to their environment and to respond to what is meaningful. Newman (2002) proposed that “attention to pattern constitutes the unitary grasp of knowledge the discipline seeks” and thus takes nursing knowledge to a higher level, transcending what is currently known and understood (p. 2). She taught us that it is very difficult to comprehend the enormity of wholeness, cautioning that the linear words of the academic world limit our understanding. She called attention to relationships, stressing that the “holistic mode of consciousness is nonlinear, simultaneous, intuitive, and concerned with relationships rather than the elements that are related” (Newman, 2008, p. 39). Newman gave the example of focusing on the elements of salt—sodium and chlorine, which can be seen, while not seeing the bond between them, which makes them salt. Strain to see and comprehend the relationships, the ties that bind. Comprehending the whole involves intuition and simultaneous appreciation for that which is seen and that which is perceived in other ways (2008). Strive to see the pattern of interactions. Pattern is a characteristic of wholeness. Wholeness is not something that can be achieved in that it is already there. Wholeness is “the bedrock of our reality”—one cannot lose or gain it (Newman, 1999, p. 228).

During her years as nurse theorist and professor at the University of Minnesota, Margaret strove to eliminate the confusion related to the nature of the discipline of nursing; she wanted to clearly articulate its focus. Margaret’s work was completely rooted in the unitary paradigm of nursing, first articulated by Martha Rogers (1970), yet it was clear that other nurses’ work was rooted in different paradigms. She collaborated with colleagues Marilyn Sime, who was involved in lab research, and Sheila Corcoran-Perry, whose nursing research focused on family systems. Together they (Newman, Sime, & Corcoran-Perry, 1991) determined that the overarching focus of the nursing discipline was “caring in the human health experience” under which fell three unique paradigms of nursing research and practice: the particulate-deterministic, the interactive-integrative, and the unitary-transformative (with the first word indicating the nature of reality and the second word indicating the nature of change in each paradigm). Newman subsequently articulated that the unitary-transformative paradigm was inclusive of the knowledge and perspectives of the other two paradigms (Newman, 2002).

Margaret Newman continued to write and speak about the unitary transformative nature of nursing praxis and further explicated the concept of wholeness, which was a major theme in the Newman Scholars’ Dialogues that were held every few years in Memphis or Boston. In 2008, Newman, Smith, Pharris, and Jones published “The Focus of the Discipline Revisited” in Advances in Nursing Science to clearly articulate nursing practice as a unified whole and to exhort nurses to embrace a shared meaning to bring coherence to nursing practice. Newman et al. (2008) proposed seven concepts that are central to the discipline of nursing: a) health, the intent of the relationship; b) caring, the nature of the relationship; c) consciousness, the informational pattern of the relationship; d) mutual process, the way in which the relationship unfolds; e) patterning, the evolving configuration of the relationship; f) presence, the resonance of the relationship; and g) meaning, the importance of the relationship.

Margaret Newman Exemplified Generosity of Spirit

When working with students, Margaret did not control, but rather sought to understand through dialogue. She hosted frequent dialogues with her students and colleagues. She encouraged her students to explore the theory of health as expanding consciousness in the context of their own work and culture. She took joy and expressed deep interest as students reached new insights. The nature of Margaret’s theory compelled her to recognize and appreciate the evolving pattern of her theoretical propositions. A poem Margaret wrote in 1985 describes her approach to relationships:

I don’t like controlling, manipulating other people.
I don’t like deceiving, withholding, or treating people as subjects or objects.
I don’t like acting as an objective non-person.
I do like interacting authentically, listening, understanding, communicating freely.
I do like knowing and expressing myself in mutual relationships.
                                 —Margaret Newman

Margaret Newman did not need to, nor did she seek, to insert herself or her theory into the work of others. She delighted in watching patterns unfold. She knew we were all one unified whole and she did not need to do anything but be fully present to what was before her. Dottie Jones and I had the great honor of being with Margaret in June, facilitating the American Academy of Nursing’s Nursing Theory-Guided Practice expert panel meeting from her bedside. Margaret listened intently to the dialogue. She said one last sentence to the group: “Don’t forget about the philosophical foundation of nursing knowledge and what is embedded in that.”

Memorial Service

A memorial service to celebrate Margaret Ann Newman’s life will take place in the Chapel of Trezevant Manor in Memphis, Tennessee on Thursday January 10 beginning at 1 p.m., followed by a reception. Marlaine Smith and Dottie Jones will be offering reflections at the memorial service. In lieu of flowers, those who are able can donate to the Margaret Newman Endowed Chair at the UT College of Nursing.

Reflections on the Transforming Presence of Margaret Ann Newman:

The following reflections come from the American Academy of Nurses’ Nursing Theory-Guided Practice Expert Panel dialogue section and from emails and cards:

Sometimes a person enters our lives and it changes us forever. Margaret was one of those people for me and for many. Her contribution to the nursing discipline lives on.
In gratitude,
    – Elizabeth Ann Manhart Barrett

 I am sad about the Earth now missing Margaret, such a great treasure. Her writing always included “breakthroughs” and that will continue to inspire and enlighten. Her Spirit will be near.
     – Dr. Patricia Chrisham, Professor Emerita, University of MN School of Nursing

I feel now as if all were a miracle which happened to me;  I met Dr. Margaret Newman at the University of Minnesota; she accepted me as her doctoral student; I worked  with her and learned a lot in a new nursing paradigm together with my classmates; and, I earned the degree of PhD at U of M.  I came back to Japan and had a lot of opportunities to teach health as expanding consciousness to graduate students of OCNS and others and worked with them and clients with cancer; and I with fellows who love HEC created the Non-profit Organization Corporation: Newman Theory/Research/Practice in Japan and are working with supporters very interestingly. I think this is really a kind of divine gift to me. I cannot write well in English. It is too much. I am standing in awe.
    – Dr. Emiko Endo*, Japan

[*It is important to note that Emiko Endo traveled from Japan to Memphis in November to be with Margaret. On November 16, Emiko, Donna Jean Mehr (Margaret’s niece), Katheryn Skinner (Margaret’s friend), and Carolyn Graff (UT Memphis College of Nursing Professor), had the last theoretical dialogue with Margaret: At this meeting, Emiko “truly appreciated that Margaret’s assertion, ‘Vulnerability, suffering, disease, death do not diminish us’ is really true.”]

Margaret taught me SO much about theory development when I was a student in her doctoral course at NYU–I am forever grateful to her for that, which catalyzed my interest in the relation of theory and research. I am confident that Margaret’s contributions to nursology will live on forever. Her thoughts, her voice, and her publications are a continuing inspiration to all of us! She already is missed. I am so glad that she was honored as an AAN Living Legend.
   – Jacqui Fawcett

Of course, I knew this day was coming, but the moment holds its own meaning. Since I read your message, I’ve been in another world, flooded with memories and very distracted in trying to “do Christmas”. Years ago, I was with Margaret when she got the phone call with the news that Martha Rogers had died. We went on with our discussion but Margaret was ‘spaced out’. I knew the depth of feelings there, so personal and vital, yet there we were carrying on with the day. I feel like this now – surreal. How our lives are interconnected! I’m glad I had my visit to her when she was still in her apartment. She took me right into the midst of her world in Memphis, which was so precious.  Now, Margaret’s going brings the time to remember, reflect and make sense of the deeply moving phase of my life when I went to study with her at UMIN. Not that her part in my life can disappear! How vital it was, including being the catalyst for so many of my special friendships! That dialogue doesn’t release us, does it? It just keeps unfolding, taking each of us with it! My decade as a student with her at UMN (1988-1998) involved so many memorable activities as well as the intense dialogue. Always at Christmas now I remember the Christmas day she cooked a special festive dinner when I was so far from home (she was a very good cook). We laughed a lot and went walking in the snow. When I stayed with her in Tucson she drove me across the border into Mexico. In Tucson we walked in snow blanketing the magnificent cacti in the desert. Memories are flooding in!
   – Dr. Merian Litchfield, Wellington, New Zealand

Margaret made such an important impact on nursing. I think she’d see this as a last step in expanding consciousness.
   – Anastasia Pharris-Ciurej, PhD, MSN, Stockholm, Sweden

 Our nursing society lost a truly inspiring person who will be remembered. With her work she was and will be present for ever also among Slovene nurses and nursing students. Her legacy will also in future link us in join effort on improving the discipline and science of nursing care.
She will be missed.

     – Majda Pajnkihar, PhD, RN, FAAN, Professor and Dean, University of Maribor

Margaret taught me theory development in the doctoral program at NYU.  I’ve used what she taught in my theoretical thinking.  She also helped me with the concept of time, which was one of the concepts for my dissertation.  Certainly an intelligent person who was caring and giving of her knowledge.  She still lives in many ways in the pandimensional universe integral with the energy/spirit of many people.
   –  John Phillips, 2018

 Margaret was a gift to us all who study nursing and are committed to it as a discipline. Her light will shine on into the future as she laid the foundation for us all toward an evolving consciousness for nursing and our world. A heart opening Wonder Woman.
   – Jean Watson

We invite your comments on the ways in which Margaret Newman inspired you.

References

Johnson, D.E. (1961). The significance of nursing care. American Journal of Nursing, 61(11), 63-66.

Newman, M. A. (1966). Identifying and meeting patients’ needs in short-span nurse-patient relationships. Nursing Forum, 5(1), 76–86.

Newman, M. A. (1979). Theory development in nursing. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis. Newman, M. A. (1994a). Theory for nursing practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 7(4), 153–157.

Newman, M. A. (1994b). Health as expanding consciousness (2nd ed.). Boston: Jones and Bartlett (NLN Press).

Newman, M. A. (1997).  Experiencing the whole. Advances in Nursing Science, 20(1), 34-39.

Newman, M. A. (1999). The rhythm of relating in a paradigm of wholeness. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 31(3), 227–230.

Newman, M. A. (2002). The pattern that connects. Advances in Nursing Science, 24(3), 1–7.

Newman, M.A. (2008a). Transforming presence: The difference that nursing makes. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Newman, M.A. (2008b). It’s about time. Nursing Science Quarterly, 21(3), 225-227.

Newman, M. A., Sime, A. M., & Corcoran-Perry, S. A. (1991). The focus of the discipline of nursing. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(1), 1–6.

Newman, M. A., Smith, M. C., Pharris, M. D., & Jones, D. (2008). The focus of the discipline revisited. Advances in Nursing Science, 31(1), E16–E27.

Rogers, M. (1970). An introduction to the theoretical basis of nursing. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.

For more information about Margaret’s life, see the Memphis Funeral Home obituary

In lieu of flowers, contributions can be made to the fund for the Margaret Newman Endowed Chair

At an AAN meeting – From Left to Right: Dorothy Jones, Margaret Newman (center) and former students and Newman Scholars Dr. Jacqueline Somerville and Dr. Angeline Peters-Lewis

from left to right: Margaret Pharris, Dorothy Jones, Margaret Newman, and Marlaine Smith. Taken in 2008 after the Newman Scholars Dialogue, Boston,MA

Margaret with advisees

Margaret, Maggie Pharris, Ellen Egan

Celebrating Margaret’s 81st birthday

Margaret with Richard Cowling

Gigi Oaks, Susan Drummon, Rebecca Meyer with Margaret

Pharris, Litchfield, Newman Lamendola,Jones

Margaret Newman and Martha Alligood, taken at the University of Tennessee Knoxville in spring 1995. Photo by Sandra Thomas

 

Margaret Newman young

Margaret Newman young adult

Margaret Newman child

The Experience of Nursology.net

Just before the holidays, my long-time friend, Sue Huether, said to me after spending some time on Nursology.net – “Peggy, this is not just a website – it’s an experience!” Her comment inspired our new site tagline because in fact, Nursology.net has indeed turned out to be an experience!

Even for those of us building the site, it has been an experience. We have all been involved in the work of developing and teaching nursing ideas for many decades, but the experience of the website has led us to new appreciation for the depth, the breadth and the significance of our discipline.

We invite you to experience Nursology.net often! Spend some time clicking around in every section, following links to information all over the web! Follow our blog, and visit the site often because we will have new content just about every week. Most important, we have built in ways for you to participate in every section! Not sure how to get involved, just let us know!

Scholarships for the National Nursing Ethics Conference

Scholarships Available for National Nursing Ethics Conference (NNEC) March 20-22, 2019 

NNEC wishes to thank Ann Hamric, PhD, RN, FAAN, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses and the Hospice and Palliative Nurses Foundation for their support of nursing ethics education.

  • The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) is offering up to $3,000 per person scholarship to attend the Sixth National Nursing Ethics Conference. Visit the AACN Continuing Professional Development Scholarships page to learn more.  You must be a member of AACN to apply. For questions, please e-mail scholarshp@aacn.org
  • Hospice and Palliative Nurses Foundation Conference Scholarship –  National Nursing Ethics Conference
    This single conference scholarship opportunity will be provided to a qualified applicant by the Hospice and Palliative Nurses Foundation and include a full conference registration of $515 plus a reimbursable travel stipend of up to $500 to attend the National Nursing Ethics Conference March 21-22, 2019 at the Luskin Conference Center, UCLA. Please review eligibility requirements at https://advancingexpertcare.org/NNEC.  We welcome questions at info@hpnf.org.
  • Ann Hamric Graduate Student NNEC Scholarship Award
    Three scholarships have been provided to support graduate students who have demonstrated an interest in ethics. Travel funds of $500 will be available to each student to attend the National Nursing Ethics Conference.  Please submit a short bio and a brief description of your interest in healthcare ethics (no more than 150 words) to EthicsCenter@mednet.ucla.edu with subject heading “SCHOLARSHIP”
    Eligible students must reside outside of California.

Interested In Contributing To Nursology.Net?: The Innovative Way Of Promoting Global Exchange Of Nursing Knowledge

Dr. Eustace is a member of the Nursology.net management team!

Nursology.net exists to provide a way for you, the reader, to get your research out to a broad, global audience!  We are increasingly challenged to find new ways of improving population health outcomes by ensuring quality nursing care for all (Fawcett, Amweg, Legor, Kim, & Maghrabi, 2018). As the largest segment of the health care workforce, the nursing profession is positioned to lead and advance health as well as transform health care systems (IOM, 2011).

With this charge in hand, contemporary nursing scholars need to be in the forefront of advancing the profession and promoting a better understanding of the contributions of nursing knowledge in health care through scholarly development of nursing science. Although there has always been hiccups or outright aversion of nursing theory development within the profession, this is about to change as more nurses are called to lead the way to deal with the 21st century health challenges that need an informed nursing workforce (All‐Party Parliamentary Group on Global Health, 2016).

As a profession, I believe, we are transforming and our approaches are evolving.  Although our contributions might seem to be undervalued and in many cases our capacity to work to our full potential may be hindered, we are the only ones who can reverse this trajectory and advocate for the discipline, our patients, families and communities. We are the most trusted profession in health care systems. We have vast experience in theory construction methodologies and have significantly contributed to concepts related to nursing and health care.

Unfortunately, most of our preliminary work is not known to many nurses within the discipline and between disciplines. The impact of nursing on quality, access and cost of treatment is not new (All‐Party Parliamentary Group on Global Health, 2016). We need to take such positive outcomes and strive to make sure our contributions to public health policy and decision making are shared widely through various venues including peer-reviewed publications, professional organizations and innovative websites. These venues are critical for information exchange as well as advancing nursing knowledge.

Nursology.net is an innovative website that provides a venue to promote global exchange of nursing knowledge in the 21st century. Through Nursology.net, nurses are encouraged to contribute by sharing their work on how they have constructed a nursing theory, how they have tested nursing theoretical underpinnings in the empirical world and the impact of their outcomes on nursing practice, education and/or health policy. This process of knowledge sharing provides a timely channel for “meta-theory”- the study of ourselves to – re-examine the strengths and weakness of our theorizing processes. This is highly needed in the discipline to clarify the domain of nursing, guide nursing research and practice (Jairath, Peden-McAlpine, Sullivan, Vessey & Henly, 2018; Lor, Backonja, & Lauver, 2017).

Although we are very limited in systematic reviews related to summarizing theoretical evidence or theoretical meta-analyses (e.g. Wolf., & France, 2017), and we are not well structured in disseminating our knowledge outside nursing circles, we can close the gaps by becoming CHAMPIONS for better ways of sharing and learning from good nursing practice and from our own research locally, nationally and at the global-level (All‐Party Parliamentary Group on Global Health, 2016).  So, where can you start? The answer is Nursology.net.  

And why should you care about disseminating your findings on Nursology.net?

You should care because the construction of nursing knowledge can only continue to evolve as long as we share how we utilize and/or refine what we know about the theoretical underpinnings related to the art and science of nursing and how we contribute to the profession, the healthcare environment, targeted population and ultimately population health outcomes over time. Nurse scholars or student nurses should strive to share their findings on how they make deductive and inductive conclusive augments on their phenomena of interest by sharing their work as Practice, Education/theory, Research/Theory, Policy/Theory or Quality Improvement/Theory exemplars. (Note: there are forms on each of the main “Exemplar” sections that you can use to share your work!)

Are you interested in contributing your research work to Nursology.net? If YES, please follow the attached quick guide to get started! Become a CHAMPION FOR ADVANCING NURSING KNOWLEDGE!!  (Download a PDF of the flow chart here)

References

All‐Party Parliamentary Group on Global Health. (2016). Triple Impact: How Developing Nursing Will Improve Health, Promote Gender Equality and Support Economic Growth. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/hrh/com-heeg/digital-APPG_triple-impact.pdf

Fawcett, J., Amweg, L. N., Legor, K., Kim, B. R., & Maghrabi, S. (2018). More Thoughts About Conceptual Models and Literature Reviews: Focus on Population Health. Nursing science quarterly, 31(4), 384-389.

Institute of Medicine (US) (2011). Committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on the Future of Nursing. (2011). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Jairath, N. N., Peden-McAlpine, C. J., Sullivan, M. C., Vessey, J. A., & Henly, S. J. (2018). Theory and Theorizing in Nursing Science: Commentary from the Nursing Research Special Issue Editorial Team. Nursing research, 67(2), 188-195.

Lor, M., Backonja, U., & Lauver, D. R. (2017). How Could Nurse Researchers Apply Theory to Generate Knowledge More Efficiently?. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 49(5), 580-589.

Wolf, Z. R., & France, N. E. (2017). Caring in Nursing Theory. International Journal for Human Caring, 21(2), 95-108.

 

 

Breaking the Silence-Exploring Perceptions of Power as Freedom in the World of Nursologists

by Julianne Mazzawi, Jacqueline Fawcett and Rosanna DeMarco

In 2015, the American Nurses Association released a purpose and position statement indicating that it is an individual and shared responsibility among all nursologists and employers to promote and sustain a culture of respect that is free of incivility, bullying, and workplace violence. Such a culture reflects the ethical, moral, and legal responsibility of everyone to create a healthy and safe work environment for all members of the healthcare team, participants in healthcare (sometimes called patients), families, and communities. So why is it that nursologists and their support staff continue to show manifestations of “silencing-the-self” when instances of incivility, bullying, and even violence occur? (DeMarco, Fawcett, & Mazzawi., 2017, p. 4)?

Too often, nursologists experience sleep problems, anxiety, distress, oppression, burnout, absence from or leaving work, organizational frustration, and job dissatisfaction, and commit more errors due primarily to incivility, bullying, and violence in the workplace (Lim & Berstein, 2014; The Joint Commission, 2008; Vagharseyyedin, 2015) Obviously, it is imperative to resolve these negative outcomes for all current and future nursologists.

We conceptualized civility and incivility within the context of Neuman’s Systems Model. (See model below). Accordingly, the client system was represented by the nursologists who are the perpetrators or recipients of covert incivility (CI), defined as the “appearance of civility with negative intent” (DeMarco et al., 2018, p. 254). Stressors were represented by CI, and the reaction to stressors was represented by such manifestations as sleep problems, anxiety, oppression, burnout, and organizational frustration. The reactions were regarded as the impact of CI on nursologists who are faculty, students, and staff nurses, as well as witnesses to CI. The workplace (academic or clinical) and society also may experience reactions to CI. We identified several prevention as interventions for CI, with an emphasis on secondary and tertiary interventions; we explained that these interventions “need to be directed to existing levels of CI of all kinds that include measuring the level of ‘silencing-the-self'” (DeMarco et al., 2018, p. 256).

2018 © Jacqueline Fawcett

Of course, primary prevention as intervention also must be considered; we recommended educating all students and graduate nursologists about both overt incivility and signs of CI and creating contracts for nursologists focused on “creating a formal promise to not engage in overt of covert incivility and addressing the behavior direction at the individual, group, and systems levels” (DeMarco et al. 2018, p 257).

In this blog, we offer the specific recommendation that focus on resolution of CI through application of nursological theories of power. Resolution of CI, we are convinced, will occur when nursologists’ perceptions of power change from perceptions of others having power over them to perceptions of power as freedom to choose and peace as power.

The idea for this blog was Mazzawi’s and Fawcett’s attendance at the 2018 Society of Rogerian Scholars (https://nursology.net/2018/10/09/celebrating-30-years-the-society-of-rogerian-scholars/), at which the four nursological theories of power discussed here were presented. We began to imagine a world where nursologists perceive power as freedom to choose and peace as power rather than perceiving power as others having power over them to control them and that in this world, civility would reign, bullying and workplace violence would not happen, and only positive outcomes would occur!

Four nursological theories of power provide explanations of having power that leads to civil discourse and the conversion of negative outcomes to positive outcomes.

  • Barrett’s (2010). theory of power as knowing participation in change provides a contrast between power as freedom and power as control and encompasses awareness, choices, freedom to act intentionally, and involvement in creating change. Participating knowingly in the ongoing mutual process with ourselves, with other people, and with our immediate world creates the opportunity for not only fulfillment in one’s life but also the opportunity to create positive change. (See https://nursology.net/nurse-theorists-and-their-work/theory-of-power-as-knowing-participation-in-change/).
  • Chinn’s (2013; Chinn & Falk-Rafael, 2015) theory of peace and power provides a contrast between peace-power and power-over. The theory empathizes how “individuals and groups . . . shape their actions and interactions to promote cooperation, inclusion of all points of view in making decisions and in addressing conflicts. [Accordingly], … individuals and groups can make thoughtful choices about the ways they work together to promote healthy, growthful interactions and avoid harmful, damaging interactions.” (Retrieved from https://nursology.net/nurse-theorists-and-their-work/peace-power/)
  • Polifroni’s (2010) theory of clinical power provides a contrast between having power as the result of knowledge and hierarchical power or taking power from another person. The theory emphasizes “the belief that power is knowledge and all nurses possess that power. In this context power is a right and it is truth/knowledge. Intentionality, authenticity, ways of knowing, PEACE . . . and CARE . . . surround the awareness and relationship of the nurse who is exercising clinical power” (Retrieved from https://nursology.net/nurse-theorists-and-their-work/clinical-power/).
  • Sieloff’s (1995, 2018) theory of work team/group empowerment in organizations provides an understanding of how nursologists have power in clinical and educational organizations. The theory encompasses competency in communication and in explicating goals and outcomes, as well as the work team/group’s leader’s competency; control of environmental forces; utilization of resources; empowerment perspective; empowerment potential and actual capacity to achieve outcomes; role, that is, the “degree to which the work of an [organization] is accomplished through the efforts of [a work team/group]” (Sieloff, 1995, p. 58); and position, that is, “the centrality of [the] nursing [work team/group] within the communication network of an [organization]” (Sieloff, 1995, p. 57).

Application of the power theories as ways to enhance understanding and resolution of CI provides a nursology discipline-specific approach to practice. Readers are invited to share their experiences with application of the power theories as comments for this blog.

References

American Nurses’ Association. (2015). Incivility, bullying, and workplace violence. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/WorkplaceSafetyHealthy-
Nurse/bullyingworkplaceviolence/Incivility-Bullying-and-Workplace-Violence.html.

Barrett, E. (2010). Power as knowing participation in change: What’s new and what’s next. Nursing Science Quarterly, 23, 47-54.

Chinn, P. L. (2013). Peace & power: New directions for building community (8th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Chinn, P. L., & Falk-Rafael, A. R. (2015). Peace and power: A theory of emancipatory group process. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 47, 62–69.

DeMarco, R., F., Fawcett, J., & Mazzawi, J. (2017). Covert incivility: Challenges as a challenge in the nursing academic workplace. Journal of Professional Nursing, 1-6.
doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2017.10.001

Lim, F. A., & Berstein, I. (2014). Civility and workplace bullying: Resonance of
persona and current best practices. Nursing Forum, 49, 124-129.

Polifroni, E. C. (2010). Power right and truth: Foucault’s triangle as a model for clinical power. Nursing Science Quarterly, 238-412

Sieloff, C. L. (1995). Development of a theory of departmental power. In M. A. Frey & C. L. Sieloff (Eds.), Advancing King’s systems framework and theory of nursing (pp. 46-65). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Sieloff, C. L. (2018, October 6). Thoughts about nursing and power: Theory of work team/group empowerment. Paper presented as part of a symposium on nursological theories of power at the Society of Rogerian Scholars 30th Anniversary Conference, New York University Rory Myers College of Nursing, New York, NY.

The Joint Commission (2008). Behaviors that undermine a culture of safety. Retrieved from https://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/18/SEA_40.PDF.

Vagharseyyedin, S.A. (2015). Workplace incivility: A concept analysis. Contemporary Nurse, 50, 115-125.

About the authors

Julianne Mazzawi

Julianne Mazzawi, RN; MS
PhD candidate, Department of Nursing
University of Massachusetts Boston

Jacqueline Fawcett, RN; PhD; ScD (hon); FAAN; ANEF
Professor, Department of Nursing
University of Massachusetts Boston

Rosanna F. DeMarco, RN; PhD;  PHNA-BC; FAAN
Professor and Chair, Department of Nursing
University of Massachusetts Boston

Jacqueline Fawcett

Rosanna DeMarco

What are Legitimate Nursology Specialties?

 Bittencourt, Marques, and Mendes Diniz de Andrade Barroso’s (2018) paper, published in Revista de Enfermagem Referência, catalyzed my thoughts about labels for legitimate specialties in the discipline of nursology. (Scroll down for information about the authors and access to the article website.) Clearly, concern for nursology-discipline specific knowledge is of interest to our scholar colleagues from Brazil (Dr. Bittencourt) and Portugual (Dr. Dias Marques and Dr. Mendes Diniz de Andrade Barroso). They presented an innovative approach to further development of nursology by placing a traditional specialty (mental health) within the context of various nursological conceptual models and theories. (Download the PDF of the English open-access article here).

Bittencourt and colleagues (2018) pointed out that although nursologists “have been conducting studies with the purpose of promoting mental health in schools and other settings . . . based on evidence that clearly points to the effectiveness of promotion strategies, [nursological] theories are rarely put forward as a basis for these nurse-led mental health promotion strategies” (Bittencourt et al., 2018, p. 126). They recommended that nursological conceptual models and theories should be used to expand thinking about the practice of mental health promotion and described the contributions of Meleis’ Transitions Theory, Pender’s Health Promotion Model, Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations, and Roy’s Adaptation Model  to research and practice for promotion of mental health.

The starting point for Bittencourt and colleagues’ (2018) proposal is a traditional specialty area that imitates a medical specialty, that is, mental health. Nursologists typically identify with this and other specialties drawn from medicine, including but not limited to medical, surgical, obstetrical, and pediatric specialties. These specialties comprise many undergraduate and graduate educational curricula, the broad areas of nursologists’ research, and the naming of departments in clinical agencies. Thus, just as Bittencourt et al. (2018) did for the specialty of mental health, nursological conceptual models and theories could be used as guides for the content of the courses, research, and practice in other specialty areas.

But what if the content of each nursological conceptual model and theory was used to designate specialties? For example, many years ago, Rogers (1973) proposed that the subsystems of Johnson’s Behavioral System Model could be nursology-specific specialties. Accordingly, specialties for curriculum content, research, and practice could be the aggressive subsystem, the attachment subsystem, the achievement subsystem, the ingestive subsystem, the eliminative subsystem, the dependency subsystem, and the sexual subsystem. Similarly, specialties within the context of Neuman’s Systems Model could be physiological variables, psychological variables, sociocultural variables, developmental variables, and spiritual variables.
Although the proposal that specialties should be within the context of each nursological conceptual model and theory may be regarded as preposterous, at least some nursologists have understood the value and importance of labels for specialties that differentiate the discipline and profession of nursology from other sciences and especially from the trade of medicine. For example, Batey and Eyres (1979) explained that “Language is fundamental to the evolution of all disciplines [and] [w]ithin any discipline, selected terminology evolves to become the concepts that denote the specific knowledge domains and methodologies of that discipline” (p. 139). Moreover, “Every science has its own peculiar terms, concepts and principles which are essential for the development of its knowledge base. In [nursology] , as in other sciences, an understanding of these is a prerequisite to a critical examination of their contribution to the development of knowledge and its application to practice” (Akinsanya, 1989, p. ii). Barrett (2003) added, “How would one understand anatomy and physiology, microbiology, pharmacology, . . . without the precise use of language reflecting those domains of knowledge? . . . How else is substantive knowledge to be communicated without saying it is what it is that it is!” (p. 280).

As we think about the admittedly potential choas of having such diverse nursology-specific specialties, we may move to an innovative and integrative way of identifying the specialities that accurately delineate what nursologists actually teach, study, and practice. Clearly, we need to move to (paraphrasing) what Allison and Renpenning (1999) called thinking nursology, what Watson (1996) called nursology qua nursology, and certainly what Meleis (1993) pointed out is the need to progress from thinking like and pretending to be junior doctors to being senior nursologists.

Noteworthy is that many of the ideas included in this blog come from publications of decades ago. Yet, no progress has been made in all that time. So, what do you think nursology-specific specialties should be? Should we continue with the status quo of using the same terms as does medicine with the added value of the context of nursological conceptual models and theories? Or, should we be finally be bold and use the languge of our nursological conceptual models and theories to name and structure our specialties?

References

Akinsanya, J.A. (1989). Introduction. Recent Advances in Nursing, 24, i–ii.

Allison, S. E., & Renpenning, K. (1999). Nursing administration in the 21st century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Barrett. E. A. M. (2003). Response to Letter to the Editor. Nursing Science Quarterly, 16, 27-28.

Batey, M. V., & Eyres, S. J. (1979). Interdisciplinary semantics: Implications for research. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 1, 139-141.

Bittencourt, M. N., Dias Marques, M. I., & Mendes Diniz de Andrade Barroso, T. M. (2018). Contributions of nursing theories in the practice of the mental health promotion. Revista de Enfermagem Referência, 4(18), 125–132.

Meleis, A. I. (1993, April). Nursing research and the Neuman model: Directions for the future. Panel discussion at the Fourth Biennial International Neuman Systems Model Symposium (B. Neuman, A. I. Meleis, J. Fawcett, L. Lowry, M. C. Smith, and A. Edgil, participants), Rochester, NY.

Rogers, C. G. (1973). Conceptual models as guides to clinical nursing specialization. Journal of Nursing Education, 12(4), 2–6.

Watson, M. J. (1996). Watson’s theory of transpersonal caring. In P. Hinton Walker & B. Neuman (Eds.), Blueprint for use of nursing models (pp. 141–184). New York, NY: NLN Press.

About the authors

  • Marina Nolli Bittencourt, RN; Ph.D. is an Adjunct Professor, at the Federal University of Amapá, in Macapá, Brazil
  • Maria Isabel Dias Marques, Ph.D., is a Coordinating Professor, in the Nursing School of Coimbra,in Coimbra, Portugal
  • Tereza Maria Mendes Diniz de Andrade Barroso, Ph.D., is an Adjunct Professor in the Nursing School of Coimbra, in Coimbra, Portugal

Access the article

The file for their journal article, Contributions of nursing theories in the practice of the mental health promotion, is available in English and Portuguese at https://doi.org/10.12707/RIV18015. The abstract is available in English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

The journal, Revista de Enfermagem Referência, is the property of the Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra.

Update on early nursing theory think tanks facilitated by Margaret Newman

On November 13th, I posted information about early nursing theory think tanks organized by Margaret Newman!  A few days ago, I happened to be looking for something entirely unrelated in the early issues of Advances in Nursing Science and discovered a little notice announcing the second nursing theory think tank!   I have added the link to the announcement as an addendum to the November post, but also believe it is important to add here the information in this notice for its historic significance.

The ANS notice confirms that the purpose of the  first nursing theory think tank in October 1978 was to “bring together persons involved in theory development in nursing to explore areas of needed theory development and to devise a means whereby continuing dialogue between theorists can occur” (page 105).

The October 1978 think tank participants were:

Margaret Newman, facilitator (The Pennsylvania State University)
June Brody (Herbert Lehman College),
Carol Deets (Indian University),
Ellen Egan (University of Minnesota),
Rosemary Ellis (Case Western Reserve University),
Jacqueline Fawcett (University of Pennsylvania),
Joyce Fitzpatrick (Wayne State University),
Beverly Hall (University of Washington),
Margaret Hardy (Boston University),
Joan Rinehart (The Pennsylvania State University),
Elizabeth See (Wayne State University)
Marilyn Sime (University of Minnesota),
Ardis Swanson (New York University),
Gertrude Torres (Wright State University), and
Lorraine Walker (The University of Texas).